TERM 2-MY NOTES CORE CONCEPTS OF PHARMOCOLOGY CH.8 "Drugs Affecting Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System" Flashcards Preview

► Med Notes > TERM 2-MY NOTES CORE CONCEPTS OF PHARMOCOLOGY CH.8 "Drugs Affecting Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System" > Flashcards

Flashcards in TERM 2-MY NOTES CORE CONCEPTS OF PHARMOCOLOGY CH.8 "Drugs Affecting Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System" Deck (36):
1

Drugs Affecting Functions of the Autonomic Nervous system

,

2

Two primary divisions of the nervous system is the CNS and the peripheral nervous system
A)true
B)false

A

3

Identify the three primary functions of the nervous system.
A)Recognize changes in the internal and ex ternal environments
B)Process and integrate these environmental changes
C)React to the environmental changes by producing an action or response
D)all the above

D

4

The autonomic nervous system has two subsystems called the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system
A)true
B)false

A

5

The sympathetic nervous system is activated under conditions of stress and produces a set of actions called the fight-or-flight response.
A)true
B)false

a

6

On the other hand, the parasympathetic nervous system is activated under nonstressful conditions and produces symptoms called the rest-and-digest response
A)true
B)false

A

7

The synapse contains a space called the synaptic cleft, which must be crossed for the impulse to reach the next neuron. The neuron generating the original impulse is called the presynaptic neuron. The nerve on the other side of the synapse, waiting to receive the impulse, is called the postsynaptic neuron.
A)true
B)false

A

8

Chemicals called neurotransmitters allow nerve impulses to cross the synaptic cleft. Neurotransmitters are released into the synaptic cleft when a nerve impulse reaches the end of a presynaptic neuron
A)true
B)false

A

9

The two primary neurotransmitters of the autonomic nervous system are norepinephrine (NE) and acetylcholine (Ach).
A)true
B)false

A

10

For example, sympathetic nerves in the heart release NE on cardiac muscle, which stimulates the heart to contract faster and w ith greater fo rce. Sympathetic nerves also release NE in the smooth muscle lining the digestive tract, and its action is to slow contractions, or motility. Sympathetic nerves are sometimes called adrenergic. This term comes from the word adrenaline, which is a chemical closely related to NE.
A)true
B)false

A

11

The physiology of Ach is more complicated because it is released in several locations. When released at the ends of parasympathetic neurons, it produces the opposite effects of NE, such as slowing the heart and increasing the motili ty of the digestive tract.
A)true
B)false

A

12

Ach receptors in the ganglia and in skeletal muscle are called nicotinic receptors, named after nicotine, the agent found in tobacco products. Ach receptors at the end of postsynaptic neurons in the parasympathetic nervous system are called muscarinic receptors, named after an extract of the mushroom Amanita muscaria
A)true
B)false

A

13

Norepinephrine receptors are of two basic subtypes, alpha and beta receptors. Alpha and beta are Greek letters commonly used in naming chemical and scientific compounds. Drugs may be selective and affect only one type of NE receptor, or they may affect all of them
A)true
B)false

A

14

Norepinephrine (NE) receptors are adrenergic receptors in the sympathetic pathway. Acetylcholine (Ach) receptors in the ganglia and skeleta l muscles (not shown here) are called nicotinic. Ach receptors at the ends of postganglionic neurons in the parasympathetic pathway are called muscarinic.
A)true
B)false

A

15

Stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system. These drugs are called sympathomimetics or adrenergic drugs and produce the classic symptoms of the fight-or-flight response
A)true
B)false

A

16

Stimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system. These drugs are called parasympathomimetics or cholinergic drugs and produce the classic symptoms of the rest-and-digest response
A)true
B)false

A

17

Inhibition of the sympathetic nervous system. These d rugs are called adrenergic blockers or sympatholytics and prod uce actions opposite to those of the sympatho mimetics.
A)true
B)false

A

18

Inhibition of the parasympathetic nervous system. These drugs are called anticholinergics or cholinergic blockers and produce acti ons opposite to those of the parasympathom i met ics.
A)true
B)false

A

19

Two important adverse effects that limit their usefulness include tachycardia (fast heart rate) and the tendency to cause urinary re tention in men with prostate disorders.
A)Anticholinergics
B)Adrenergic

A

20

Parasympathomimetics have few therapeutic uses because of their numerous adverse effects. Parasympathomimetics are used to treat glaucoma and to stimulate the urinary or digestive tracts following general anesthesia. Toxic nerve agents are parasympathomimetics, producing harmful effects in the body.
A)true
B)false

A

21

Anticholinergics are mainly used to dry secretions and to treat asthma. The use of cholinergic blockers has declined due to their numerous adverse effects. They are used to dry secreti ons, dilate the bronchi, and dilate the pupils.
A)true
B)false

A

22

Sympathomimetics are primarily used for their effects on the heart, bronchial tree, and nasal passages. Sympathomimelics may stimulate one or several subtypes of adrenergic receptors. Uses include increasing the heart rate, dilating the bronchi, and drying excess secretions caused by colds.
A)true
B)false

A

23

Adrenergic blockers are primarily used to treat hypertension and are the most widely prescribed class of autonomic drugs. Adrenergic blockers are the most commonly prescribed autonomic medications. They may be selective for only one receptor subtype, such as the beta 1-blockers, or inhibit several subtypes. Hypertension is their primary indication.
A)true
B)false

A

24

The nurse recognizes that which of the following drugs is contraindicated in patients with glaucoma?
A)Timolol (Timoptic)
B)Atropine

B

25

The patient diagnosed with glaucoma would most likely be prescribed which of the following drugs?
A)Adrenergic drugs
B)Cholinergic drugs

B

26

The nurse teaches the patient that rebound congesti on can occur w ith long-term use of this sympathomimetic.
A)Salmeterol (Serevent)
B)Phenylephrine (Nee-Synephrine)

B

27

The patient is diagnosed with urinary bladder urgency and incontinence. The nurse recognizes which of the following anticholinergics as being appropriate for this condition?
A)Oxybutynin (Ditropan)
B)Scopolamine (Transderm-Scop)

A

28

Alpha 1-adrenergic blockers cause what to occur in the body?
A)Vasodilation and decreased blood pressure
BVasoconstriction and increased blood pressure

A

29

Metoprolol (Lopressor) is classified as a(n):
A)Beta blocker
B)Cholinergic

B

30

Prior to administering atenolol (Tenormin), the nurse should assess:
A)Heart rate and blood pressure
B)Temperature and blood pressure

A

31

The body's response to stimulation of this autonomic receptor is increased heart rate and force of contraction and release of renin.
A)Beta1
B)Alpha1

A

32

The patient given bethanechol (Urecholine) must be assessed for:
A)Fluid overload
B)Dehydration

B

33

Anticholinergic drugs would be suspected for which of the following patient complaints?
A)Dry mouth
B)Increased urination

A

34

What should Mrs. W heaton be aware of when taking betha nechol? (Select a ll that apply.)
I. No adverse effects are sig nificant to re port whe n taking this medication.
2. To avoid abrupt position c hanges.
3. That vision may become blu rred.
4. To be near a bathroom after ta king this medication.

2-3-4

35

Mrs. Lopez has been diagnosed with severe hyperrension.Which of the following drugs might she be prescribed?
A)Ipratropium (A trovent)
B)Salme terol (Serevent)
C)Prazosin (Minipress)
D)Phenylephrine (Neo-Synephrine)

D

36

Which class(es) of drugs effectively reverse M rs. Lopez's hypertension?
I. Parasympathomimetics and anti cho linergics
2. Sympathomimetics
3. Sympathomimetics and cholinergics
4. Adrenergic blockers

4