TERM 2-MY NOTES CORE CONCEPTS OF PHARMOCOLOGY "Drugs for Lipid Disorders" Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in TERM 2-MY NOTES CORE CONCEPTS OF PHARMOCOLOGY "Drugs for Lipid Disorders" Deck (38):
1

The three classes of lipids are triglycerides, steroids, and phospholipids.

True

2

The most common are the triglycerides, or neutral fats. Triglycerides form a large family of different lipids, all having three fatty acids attached to a chemical backbone of glycerol.
A)true
B)false

A

3

Triglycerides are the major storage form of fat in the body and the only type of lipid that serves as an important energy source. They account for 90% of the total lipids in the body.
A)true
B)false

A

4

A second class of lipids is the steroids, a diverse group of substances having a common chemical structure called the steroid nucleus or ring.
A)true
B)false

A

5

Cholesterol is the most widely known of the steroid . Its negative role in promoting atherosclerosis is well known. but cholesterol also is a natural and vital component of cellular membranes.
A)true
B)false

A

6

The third class, the phospholipids, is formed when a phosphoru group replaces one of the fatty acids in a triglyceride. This class of lipids is essenrial to building cellular membranes.
A)true
B)false

A

7

The best known phospholipids are lecithins, which are found in high concentration in egg yolks and soybeans. Once promoted as a natural treatment for high cholesterol levels, controlled studies have not shown lecithin to be of any benefit for this disorder.
A)true
B)false

A

8

lipoprotein levels are important predictors of cardiovascular disease.

,

9

In simplest term , the greater the amount o f cholesterol circulating in the blood, the greater the risk of cardiovascular disease
A)true
B)false

A

10

Lipoproteins are water soluble and can be transported freely throughout the blood.
A)true
B)false

A

11

The three most common lipoproteins are named based on their weight or density, which comes primarily from the amount of protein present in the complex .
A)true
B)false

A

12

Although cholesterol is packaged in all lipoproteins, low-d ensity lipoprotein (LDL) has the greatest amount: Almost 50 % o f LDL consists of cholesterol.
A)true
B)false

A

13

The liver makes LDL, which is then transported to tissues and organs, where it is used to build plasma membranes or to synthesize other steroids.
A)true
B)false

A

14

Storage of cholesterol in the lining of blood vessels, however, contributes to plaque buildup and atherosclerosis.
A)LDL
B)HDL

A

15

LDL is often called " bad" cholesterol, because the lipoprotein contributes significantly to plaque deposits and coronary artery disease.
A)true
B)false

A

16

high-density lipoprotein (HDL), picks up cholesterol in the blood and other tissues and returns it to the liver. Once in the liver, the cholesterol is used to make bile, which is essential for digestion of lipids.
A)true
B)false

A

17

Thus HDL may be thought of as " cholesterol scavengers" that pick up cholesterol in blood and tissues and transport it for removal from the body.
A)true
B)false

A

18

Because HDL transports cholesterol for destruction and removes it from the body, it is considered " good" cholesterol.
A)true
B)false

A

19

Triglycerides must also be monitored and maintained withi nnormal levels. Very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) is the primary carrier of triglycerides in the blood.
A)true
B)false

A

20

VLDL is made in the liver and converted to LDL as it travels through the bloodstream. Most of the triglycerides in VLDL are transported to adipose tissue for storage.
A)true
B)false

A

21

The health consequences of high blood level of VLDL are not as clear as for LDL levels. It has been de monstrated, however, that high levels of VLDL are associated with an increased risk of pancreatitis.
A)true
B)false

Q

22

lipid levels can often be controlled through lifestyle changes.

,

23

Following are the features of therapeutic lifestyle changes:

1.Increase physical activity. which raises HDL levels and lower triglycerides.

2.Maintain optimum weight because obesity is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease.

3.Reduce dietary saturated fat int ake to 7% of total caloric intake.

4.Reduce cholesterol intake to less than 200 mg/day.

5.Increase intake of whole grains, vegetables. and fruits so that total dietary fiber is 10 to 25 g/day.

6.Reduce or e liminate tobacco use.

True

24

Statins are drugs of choice in reducing blood lipid levels.

,

25

The statins act by inhibiting HM G-CoA reductase. As the liver makes less cholesterol, it responds by making more LDL receptors. These receptors remove more LDL from the blood; thus, blood levels of LDL cholesterol are reduced. The drop in lipid levels is not permanent, however, so patients need to remain on these drugs during the remainder of their lives or until their hyperlipidemia can be controlled through lifestyle changes
A)true
B)false

A

26

The statins are generally safe drugs, having few serious adverse effects. Gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances such as indigestion, flatulence, cramping, and constipation are usually mild and disappear with continued use.
A)true
B)false

A

27

Statins can cause muscle injury, resulting in symptoms such as weakness, soreness, and pain. Muscle side effects are dose related and tend to occur more often in elderly patients.
A)true
B)false

A

28

Bile acids resins can increase cholesterol excret ion and reduce LDL levels

,

29

Bile acids are substances that aid the digestion of fats, which contain a high concentration of cholesterol. Once bound in the intestine, the cholesterol in the bile acid is eliminated in the feces. Although they are no longer considered first-line drugs for hyperlipidemia, they are sometimes combined with statins for patients who are unable to achieve sufficient response from the statins alone.
A)true
B)false

A

30

Although effective at producing a 20% decrease in LDL-cholesterol levels, the bile acid resins tend to cause more frequent adverse effects than do the statin. Taken orally, bile acid resins are not absorbed into the circulation; therefore, their adverse effects are limited to the GI tract. Many patients however, experience constipation. bloating, nausea, or indigestion.
A)true
B)false

A

31

Nicotinic acid can reduce triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol levels.

,

32

Nicotinic acid, or niacin, is a water-soluble B-complex vitamin whose primary action is to decrease VLDL levels. The patient also experiences a reduction in LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels. It also has the desirable effects of reducing triglycerides and increasing HDL levels. Thus. niacin is unique in that it can improve all lipoprotein abnormalities. As with other lipid-lowering drugs, maximum therapeutic effects may take a month or longer to achieve.
A)true
B)false

A

33

Its ability to lower lipid levels is unrelated to its role as a vitamin; very high doses are needed to achieve an antilipidemic effect. For lowering cholesterol, the usual dose is 2 to 3 g per day. When taken as a vitamin , the dose is only 25 mg per day.
A)true nician
B)false

A

34

Although effective at reducing LDL cholesterol by 20% , nicotinic acid produces more adverse effects than the statins. Flushing and hot flashes occur in almost every patient, although taking one aspirin tablet 30 minutes prior to niacin administration can reduce flushing in many patients. A variety of uncomfortable intestinal effects such as nausea, excess gas, and diarrhea are commonly reported. More serious adverse effects such as liver toxicity and gout are possible.
A)true
B)false

A

35

Fibric acid agents lower triglyceride levels but have little effect on LDLs

,

36

Fibrates are the most effective agents for reducing VLDLs and blood triglyceride levels. Elevation of " good" HDL cholesterol is another effect of fibrate therapy. Unfortunately, these drugs have little effect on LDL-cholesterol levels.
A)true
B)false

A

37

Fibrates cause few serious adverse effects. Rashes and Gl complaints are the most common adverse effects. Patients have an increased risk of gallstones. Like the statins, some patients experience muscle pain or weakness; therefore, patients receiving combination therapy with both statins and fibrates should be monitored carefully.
A)true
B)false

A

38

Drugs for Lipid Disorders

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