Flashcards in Terminology Deck (136):
A localized collection of pus in a cavity formed by the disintegration of tissue
Accentuated Transverse Ridging ( ATR)
ATR is commonly called washboard tables or stepped tables
ATR is common in stalled horses or horses fed processed feeds
Less common in horses foraging on dry grass and rougher pasture
1. The harder enamel part of the premolar and molar tooth table surface is accentuated from lack of wear while simultaneously excessive abrasion of the cementum in the softer areas occurs thus creating a ridging effect on the occlusal tables
2. It is the excessive abrasion of the cementum & dentin in the softer areas of the tooth and the lack of abrasion to the enamel in the harder areas of the tooth, which creates the onset of ATR
The permanent molars, so called because they have no deciduous predecessors in the dental arch
The part of the jaw in which the teeth are set, acting as shock absorber between tooth and bone
The socket in which the lower part of the tooth sets
A form of malocclusion in which the mandible is too narrow. Describing the uneven relationship between upper and lower occlusal surfaces
Cemented together, usually a bony substance
Towards the front of the body
Forward and backward movement of the mandible supported by anatomically correct lenght and angle of the incisors, as well as molar table surface-to-surface contact ( maximized). All of this is to allow the full biomechanical range of motion to the TMJ, making it anatomically correct to the whole
Pointed / top of / Apex
In equine dentistry it is used to describe the shape of the top of a tooth . This is where the nerves and blood vessels enter
The hole in the apex of a tooth root through which the nerves and blood vessels enter
The individual rows of teeth
Axial Flow of Food through the tables of the premolars and molars ( AF)
Horses cut and grind their food on one side of the dental arcades at a time. The free flow of food through the arcades makes for greater chewing comfort and more efficient mastication. As the food bolus flows through the arcades it spins around an imaginary axis in a direction opposite to that of the mandible. Near the middle of the arcade, the bolus is injected with saliva, upon which it starts to break into smaller particles. By the time the bolus reaches the rear of the arcades the particles are very small and properly prepared for digestion.
Mandible chewing is:
An imaginary line about which a body rotates
A compound word formed from the Greek term bio + mechanics, the physical principles governing the action of simple machines such as levers and pulleys. The the application of the laws of mechanics to a living organism. Dentistry is especially concerned with the live mechanical action of the mandible working against stationary maxilla, or dynamic occlusion.
A deceitful practice of chiselling the incisor cups and blackening them with silver nitrate or other chemical
Of or pertaining to the cheek, the cheek side of the molars
Calcified deposits, deposited on the surfaces of teeth
Conical teeth found between the cheek teeth and the incisor teeth. They are variously called "fighting teeth, fangs, tushes or bridle teeth". Their function is tearing and should seldom be addressed.
The remnant of a deciduous tooth, which is shed at a specific time.
A small rounded articular end of bone
Decay of bone or tooth
At or near the tail. In equine dentistry, we use it to describe the posterior region of the mouth or arcades of the cheek teeth
The harmonious relationship between occlusal surfaces of incisors, molars and the TMJ producing stability, balance and guidance in all three during rotation and translation of the mandible. The most easily produced mandibular position allowing for more accurate surface to surface evaluation
The second hardest material of the tooth. It enwraps the external enamel of molars and premolars, and fills the infindibulae of molars, premolars and incisors. The cementum binds the enamel to the dentin
Continuing over a long period of time; prolonged, lingering, the opposite of acute.
1. The part of the tooth above the gum line
2. The part of the tooth that is abraded during equilibration and general prophylaxis of the teeth
To chop or mince
A site of union of corresponding parts; as the angle of the lips and eyelids
A spasm in any hollow or tubular soft organ followed by pain
A rounded projection of bone, usually for articulation with another bone
Existing before birth, occurring during fetal life, hereditary. Congenital existence of occlusal surfaces of premolars to aid in the anatomical development of the TMJ
A part of the mandible that projects into the temporal fossa and provides attachment for the temporal muscle
Curve of Spee
The dorso-ventral curvature of the upper and lower arcades created by the curve of the jaw
Curve of Cameron
Pertaining to the curvature of the maxilla area of the skull as it relates to the molar arcades.
Decomposition of organic matter by the action of organisms
Falling off or shedding, which occurs seasonally or at a certain stage of development in the life cycle
Exposed portion of the pulp chamber on the occlusal surface of the incisors. The dental star represents where the pulp chamber has back filled with secondary dentin Dentary bone.
The softest substance of which teeth are composed; forms the body of the tooth and cusps and fills the pulp cavity
A space between the teeth, in the horse between the incisors and molars; the interdental space of the bars where the bit sits.
Often called the interdental space, the diastema is the area between the caudal margins of the incisors and the anterior margins of the the first cheek teeth. The length and height of the diastema can be important when bitting.
Farther away from any point referenced; direction away from the "core" of the animals body.
Opposite of proximal
Anatomically above or toward the backbone or back;
Subluxation (a partial dislocation) with open-mouth jaw locking and mastication problems related to and caused by dental abnormalities in the condyle of the mandible and the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone. Also called TMJ Disorder. Also in part due to improper anterior and posterior guidance
A tooth occurring in a body part any other than the alveolus.
The hardest material of which teeth are composed. In lophodont teeth, such as those of the horse, except in a newly erupted tooth, the enamel is visible as thin bands forming lope shaped patterns.
The spot, mark, or exposed portion of the infundibulum on the occlusal surface of the incisor. The spot is posterior to the dental star.
The vascular membrane lining the medullary cavity of a bone
Bone formation beginning in the substance of cartilage
Epithelium and Endothelium
Lining tissue. "Epi" means "around or on the outside of", and "End" means " on the inside of
The rate at which the crown protrudes above the gum line. The amount of eruption will vary with age and breed. The rate of eruption is adjusted to match the rate of wear of the grinding surface of the teeth. Eruption of the teeth depends on the contact of the opposing teeth past 5-6 years, as baby teeth are goring to maturity
The family of mammals that have a single functional digit. The second and third digit exist as splint bones. The family includes donkeys, zebras and horses. It also includes mules, which are a sterile offspring of a mating between a daddy donkey and a female horse.
To balance equally
A state of rest or balance due to the equal action of opposing forces. Equality of effect
A benign bony growth projecting outward from the surface of a bone
Latin for "face" or "surface"
Feces, Fecal Sample
Excretion from the bowels, waste product from the horse; manure. We check a fecal sample to see if all the particles of roughage and grain are well-ground as a way of determining whether the teeth are working properly
A thin crack or split; in the horse´s teeth, often a self-induced or practitioner-induced vertical crack in a molar
A duct or canal formed by imperfect closing of a wound, abscess, or the like and leading either from the body surface or from one body cavity or hollow organ to another.
Floating or Equilibrating
The general maintenance of horse´s teeth through balancing and equilibrating occlusal surface-to-surface contact (to the maximum) to allow full lateral excursion of the mandible, while maintaining incisor and molar table angles AND anterior and posterior guidance to the mandible ( anatomically correct to the individual). Thus restoring full biomechanical range of motion to the TMJ, increasing tooth life, enhancing performance, and improving overall body mass and condition.
A small fold of integument or mucous membrane that limits movement of an organ or part; checks or restrains the motion of a part, as the fold which anchors the underside of the tongue - also called frenum.
Anatomically, a round opening or hole
Anatomically, a recess, cup or groove
A verticals-orientated, tapering groove in the lateral surface of the permanent upper lateral incisors of the horse which begins to show above the gum line at ten years old, is half way down the incisor at 15, clear down at 20, half gone at 25 and clear gone at the age of 30
Of or pertaining to the gums
Inflammation of the gums
Having the appearance of a socket. A shallow or slightly cupped area of bone as is present in the skull to form the upper surface of the TMJ. Such a cavity is often called a "glenoid fossa".
Oral mucous membrane; the firm fleshy tissue covering the alveolar parts of the jaw and enveloping the teeth, including maxilla teeth
A pointed end or peak developed on a tooth through abnormal wear
The key hyoid bones involved include the Lingual Proces of the Basihyoid, the Basihyoid itself and the Ceratohyoid connecting the Basihyoid to the Stylohyoid. This structure is palpable through the tongue musculature.
Connections: The Omohyoid Muscle connects by fascia from under the Scapula to the Hyoid; the Sternothyroid and Sternohyoid Muscles connect from the Sternum to the Hyoid; and the Occipitohyoid Muscle connect between the Hyoid and the Occiput ( Nuchal and Supraspinous Ligaments)
Teeth with a generous surplus of reserve crown below the gum, which grow and develop, then erupt at the same rate as they wear
Teeth, which have been prevented from erupting by some mechanical obstacle. Obstacles deprive teeth of the room the need to erupt normally. Impactions often create secondary reactions in alveoli or jaws, may be diagnosed by observation, palpation, or x-ray, or may require extraction or surgery to correct.
The nipping or occlusal surface of the incisors
Referring to what is below or lower; The mandible is inferior to the maxilla
The tube like spaces found in the centres of both the incisors and the upper cheek teeth. In horses, the indundibulate, are filled or nearly filled with cementum.The infundibulum of an incisor is single and also called mark, spot or cup; The infundibulum of premolars and molars are double and form the hollow cylindrical tubes running down the tooth, which are visible especially after a cap is removed.
Not apparent, hidden. As a disease that does not exhibit symptoms of its onset or progress
In equine dentistry a piece of equipment used to examine, correct, compensate or equilibrate the dentition.
A muscular and cartilaginous structure located at the upper part of the trachea and supported by the hyoid bones. It is lined with mucous membrane and houses the vocal cord.
Outward movement of the mandible. Lateral excursion in the horse may be restricted by, but not limited, to enamel rims and/or ridges built upon occlusal surfaces of the teeth
Primitively, the bodies of teeth are organised into cone-shaped cusps. Through the evolution of the horse family, rows of cusps became confluent to form lophs. Lophodont teeth are formed or characterised by lophs.
The inability of the arcades of molars or incisors to fit together properly. Generally man made misalignment
The jawbones; the jaw of the horse
Pertaining to the jaw; the moving part of the skull that effects grinding, cutting, or mastication.
The largest muscle of mastication situated on the side of the cheek. Function: to bring the jaw together and acts unilaterally to achieve a sideways action.
The act of chewing and preparing food for fermentation by grinding, or cutting
The upper or stationary skull containing the wider arcades of molars in the horse
The centre or core of a structure, such as brain, kidney, tooth, etc.
Toward the middle or centre. E.g. the central incisors are mesial to the lateral incisors.
One of the accessional or permanent teeth. Molars have no deciduous predecessors in the dental arcades.
Epithelial tissue richly supplied with cells, which can secrete mucous. Lines not only the mouth, but also other body orifices such as the anus, vagina, eyelids, nostrils, etc
Natural Balance Dentistry
Anatomical alignment of dental occlusal surface-to-surface contact to promote proper anterior/posterior guidance and lateral translation of the mandible, maximising surface-to-surface contact of the teeth and maintaining cutting edge of molars as nature intended. This is all based on natural length and angle of incisors.
Indicates surface-to-surface contact; to meet closely or fit into each other as opposing teeth in the upper and lower arcades.
Surface-to-surface contact between opposing teeth. Created by contraction of muscles
Spacing of molar table surface-to-surface contact when animal is in motion or not eating and incisors are in contact.
Ossify, Ossifying, Ossification
The convert into bone, to harden like bone
Realignment of misaligned or mispositioned teeth
The roof of the mouth
A long, posterior extension of the soft palate in horses which aids in isolation of the food stream from the air stream
The largest artery that lies just inside the upper arcades of molars in the soft tissues forming the roof of the mouth
An example serving as a model or pattern. A set of ideas, which also accurate predictions to be made, and within which any given science proceeds.
The tough elastic membrane covering the surface of bone shafts; its function is to protect the bone, support the blood vessels and nerves and provide a source for cells, which engender growth at the bone surface.
Inflammation of the periosteum
Any of various bacterial infections that affect the soft tissues and bones supporting the teeth.
Tough, short fibres that secure the neck of the tooth to the rim of the alveolus and perform like shock absorbers to dampen occlusal pressures; from which arise cells that produce cementum. Chronic tension on periodontal ligament fibres from pressure or loosening of the tooth in the socket may induce formation of excessive cementum, ankylosing tooth and alveolus.
The tube or cavity, with its surrounding membrane and muscles that connect the mouth and nasal passages with the oesophagus and larynx.
Either of two bones in the skull of vertebrates; situated between and in front of the maxilla.
The first of four teeth in each arcade of cheek teeth. These teeth are either deciduous or permanent premolars.
The wolf tooth is regarded as the first premolar
1. The prevention of a specific disease
2. Prophylactic treatment, balancing teeth by an equine dentist
3. Regular dental maintenance to prevent and control periodontal disease
Having a projecting jaw
Abnormal protrusion of the mandible
Point of beginning
Incisors of the horse adjusted to a natural length and angle of that of a 5 year old - in a perfect world ;-)
Higher than the surrounding surface. In equine dentistry it is usually the high area of the erupting hypsodont tooth.
Pulp Chamber or Pulp Cavity
Cavities in the lower central portion of the horses´teeth, which houses nerves and blood vessels that give vitality to the tooth.
The process of organic decomposition
Chewing grass without swallowing it
A ski-jump like appearance of a molar, can occur at the front or back, upper or lower molar
The process projecting above from the posterior part of either side of the mandible
In hypsodont teeth, that which is below the gum line and has yet to erupt. The height of the reserve crown determines the usable life of the tooth. In horses all teeth but the canines.
Underdevelopment of the maxilla and/or mandible
Invisible part of the tooth, the part that lies below the gum in human teeth; in horses teeth the root starts at the base of the reserve crown where the enamel folds cease.
The pulp chamber of the tooth
A body plane corresponding with or parallel to the vertebral column. The medial sagittal plane divides the body into right and left halves.
A tooth structure in which cusps have become confluent to form crescents, found in cattle and other clove-footed ruminants; This tooth structure functionally parallels the lophodontry characteristic of horses;
Extreme angulations of the molar arcades grinding surface
The alignment of the mandibular cheek teeth and incisors with the maxillary cheek teeth and incisors when the mandible is closed and centred and the mouth is correct to the body or whole.
A distinct bump (or series) in the molar arcade; Where one or more teeth are longer than their neighbours.
Inflammation of the oral mucosa due to local or systemic factors
A partial dislocation of a joint
An extra tooth that is not a normal part of the dentition
1. The growing together, as that of the two halves of the mandible
2. A line junction
Tables of Cheek Teeth
The grinding or occlusal surface of the premolars and molars
Temples of the head
Three Point Balance
1. The right and left TMJ are centric unto themselves
2. The cheek teeth
3. The incisors natural length and angle
Maximise surface-to-surface contact, a must for total balance of whole body
Lying across, crosswise
A local defect, or excavation of the surface of an organ or tissue which is produced by the sloughing of necrotic inflammatory tissue.