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Flashcards in Terminology Deck (136):
1

Abscess

A localized collection of pus in a cavity formed by the disintegration of tissue

2

Accentuated Transverse Ridging ( ATR)

ATR is commonly called washboard tables or stepped tables
ATR is common in stalled horses or horses fed processed feeds
Less common in horses foraging on dry grass and rougher pasture
1. The harder enamel part of the premolar and molar tooth table surface is accentuated from lack of wear while simultaneously excessive abrasion of the cementum in the softer areas occurs thus creating a ridging effect on the occlusal tables
2. It is the excessive abrasion of the cementum & dentin in the softer areas of the tooth and the lack of abrasion to the enamel in the harder areas of the tooth, which creates the onset of ATR

3

Accessional Teeth

The permanent molars, so called because they have no deciduous predecessors in the dental arch

4

Alveolar

The part of the jaw in which the teeth are set, acting as shock absorber between tooth and bone

5

Alveolar Socket

The socket in which the lower part of the tooth sets

6

Anisognathic

A form of malocclusion in which the mandible is too narrow. Describing the uneven relationship between upper and lower occlusal surfaces

7

Ankylotic/Ankylose

Cemented together, usually a bony substance

8

Anterior

Towards the front of the body

9

APG

Forward and backward movement of the mandible supported by anatomically correct lenght and angle of the incisors, as well as molar table surface-to-surface contact ( maximized). All of this is to allow the full biomechanical range of motion to the TMJ, making it anatomically correct to the whole

10

Apical

Pointed / top of / Apex

In equine dentistry it is used to describe the shape of the top of a tooth . This is where the nerves and blood vessels enter

11

Apical Foramen

The hole in the apex of a tooth root through which the nerves and blood vessels enter

12

Arcades

The individual rows of teeth

13

Axial Flow of Food through the tables of the premolars and molars ( AF)

Horses cut and grind their food on one side of the dental arcades at a time. The free flow of food through the arcades makes for greater chewing comfort and more efficient mastication. As the food bolus flows through the arcades it spins around an imaginary axis in a direction opposite to that of the mandible. Near the middle of the arcade, the bolus is injected with saliva, upon which it starts to break into smaller particles. By the time the bolus reaches the rear of the arcades the particles are very small and properly prepared for digestion.
Mandible chewing is:
1. Down
2. Out
3. Up
4. Across/In

14

Axis

An imaginary line about which a body rotates

15

Biomechanics

A compound word formed from the Greek term bio + mechanics, the physical principles governing the action of simple machines such as levers and pulleys. The the application of the laws of mechanics to a living organism. Dentistry is especially concerned with the live mechanical action of the mandible working against stationary maxilla, or dynamic occlusion.

16

Bishoping

A deceitful practice of chiselling the incisor cups and blackening them with silver nitrate or other chemical

17

Buccal

Of or pertaining to the cheek, the cheek side of the molars

18

Calculus

Calcified deposits, deposited on the surfaces of teeth

19

Canines

Conical teeth found between the cheek teeth and the incisor teeth. They are variously called "fighting teeth, fangs, tushes or bridle teeth". Their function is tearing and should seldom be addressed.

20

Cap

The remnant of a deciduous tooth, which is shed at a specific time.

21

Capitulum

A small rounded articular end of bone

22

Caries

Decay of bone or tooth

23

Caudal

At or near the tail. In equine dentistry, we use it to describe the posterior region of the mouth or arcades of the cheek teeth

24

Centric Relation

The harmonious relationship between occlusal surfaces of incisors, molars and the TMJ producing stability, balance and guidance in all three during rotation and translation of the mandible. The most easily produced mandibular position allowing for more accurate surface to surface evaluation

25

Cementum

The second hardest material of the tooth. It enwraps the external enamel of molars and premolars, and fills the infindibulae of molars, premolars and incisors. The cementum binds the enamel to the dentin

26

Chronic

Continuing over a long period of time; prolonged, lingering, the opposite of acute.

27

Clinical Crown

1. The part of the tooth above the gum line
2. The part of the tooth that is abraded during equilibration and general prophylaxis of the teeth

28

Comminute

To chop or mince

29

Commissure

A site of union of corresponding parts; as the angle of the lips and eyelids

30

Colic

A spasm in any hollow or tubular soft organ followed by pain

31

Condyle

A rounded projection of bone, usually for articulation with another bone

32

Congenital

Existing before birth, occurring during fetal life, hereditary. Congenital existence of occlusal surfaces of premolars to aid in the anatomical development of the TMJ

33

Coronoid Process

A part of the mandible that projects into the temporal fossa and provides attachment for the temporal muscle

34

Curve of Spee

The dorso-ventral curvature of the upper and lower arcades created by the curve of the jaw

35

Curve of Cameron

Pertaining to the curvature of the maxilla area of the skull as it relates to the molar arcades.

36

Decay

Decomposition of organic matter by the action of organisms

37

Decidious

Falling off or shedding, which occurs seasonally or at a certain stage of development in the life cycle

38

Dental Star

Exposed portion of the pulp chamber on the occlusal surface of the incisors. The dental star represents where the pulp chamber has back filled with secondary dentin Dentary bone.

39

Dentin

The softest substance of which teeth are composed; forms the body of the tooth and cusps and fills the pulp cavity

40

Diastema

A space between the teeth, in the horse between the incisors and molars; the interdental space of the bars where the bit sits.
Often called the interdental space, the diastema is the area between the caudal margins of the incisors and the anterior margins of the the first cheek teeth. The length and height of the diastema can be important when bitting.

41

Distal

Farther away from any point referenced; direction away from the "core" of the animals body.
Opposite of proximal

42

Dorsal

Anatomically above or toward the backbone or back;

43

Duct

A tube

44

Dysplasia

Subluxation (a partial dislocation) with open-mouth jaw locking and mastication problems related to and caused by dental abnormalities in the condyle of the mandible and the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone. Also called TMJ Disorder. Also in part due to improper anterior and posterior guidance

45

Ectopic Tooth

A tooth occurring in a body part any other than the alveolus.

46

Enamel

The hardest material of which teeth are composed. In lophodont teeth, such as those of the horse, except in a newly erupted tooth, the enamel is visible as thin bands forming lope shaped patterns.

47

Enamel Spot

The spot, mark, or exposed portion of the infundibulum on the occlusal surface of the incisor. The spot is posterior to the dental star.

48

Endosteum

The vascular membrane lining the medullary cavity of a bone

49

Endostosis

Bone formation beginning in the substance of cartilage

50

Epithelium and Endothelium

Lining tissue. "Epi" means "around or on the outside of", and "End" means " on the inside of

51

Eruption

The rate at which the crown protrudes above the gum line. The amount of eruption will vary with age and breed. The rate of eruption is adjusted to match the rate of wear of the grinding surface of the teeth. Eruption of the teeth depends on the contact of the opposing teeth past 5-6 years, as baby teeth are goring to maturity

52

Equidae

The family of mammals that have a single functional digit. The second and third digit exist as splint bones. The family includes donkeys, zebras and horses. It also includes mules, which are a sterile offspring of a mating between a daddy donkey and a female horse.

53

Equilibrate

To balance equally

54

Equilibrium

A state of rest or balance due to the equal action of opposing forces. Equality of effect

55

Exostosis

A benign bony growth projecting outward from the surface of a bone

56

Facies

Latin for "face" or "surface"

57

Feces, Fecal Sample

Excretion from the bowels, waste product from the horse; manure. We check a fecal sample to see if all the particles of roughage and grain are well-ground as a way of determining whether the teeth are working properly

58

Fissure

A thin crack or split; in the horse´s teeth, often a self-induced or practitioner-induced vertical crack in a molar

59

Fistula

A duct or canal formed by imperfect closing of a wound, abscess, or the like and leading either from the body surface or from one body cavity or hollow organ to another.

60

Floating or Equilibrating

The general maintenance of horse´s teeth through balancing and equilibrating occlusal surface-to-surface contact (to the maximum) to allow full lateral excursion of the mandible, while maintaining incisor and molar table angles AND anterior and posterior guidance to the mandible ( anatomically correct to the individual). Thus restoring full biomechanical range of motion to the TMJ, increasing tooth life, enhancing performance, and improving overall body mass and condition.

61

Frenulum

A small fold of integument or mucous membrane that limits movement of an organ or part; checks or restrains the motion of a part, as the fold which anchors the underside of the tongue - also called frenum.

62

Foramen

Anatomically, a round opening or hole

63

Fossa

Anatomically, a recess, cup or groove

64

Galvayne´s Groove

A verticals-orientated, tapering groove in the lateral surface of the permanent upper lateral incisors of the horse which begins to show above the gum line at ten years old, is half way down the incisor at 15, clear down at 20, half gone at 25 and clear gone at the age of 30

65

Gingival/Gingiva

Of or pertaining to the gums

66

Gingivitis

Inflammation of the gums

67

Glenoid

Having the appearance of a socket. A shallow or slightly cupped area of bone as is present in the skull to form the upper surface of the TMJ. Such a cavity is often called a "glenoid fossa".

68

Gum

Oral mucous membrane; the firm fleshy tissue covering the alveolar parts of the jaw and enveloping the teeth, including maxilla teeth

69

Hook

A pointed end or peak developed on a tooth through abnormal wear

70

Hyoid Apparatus

The key hyoid bones involved include the Lingual Proces of the Basihyoid, the Basihyoid itself and the Ceratohyoid connecting the Basihyoid to the Stylohyoid. This structure is palpable through the tongue musculature.
Connections: The Omohyoid Muscle connects by fascia from under the Scapula to the Hyoid; the Sternothyroid and Sternohyoid Muscles connect from the Sternum to the Hyoid; and the Occipitohyoid Muscle connect between the Hyoid and the Occiput ( Nuchal and Supraspinous Ligaments)

71

Hypsodont

Teeth with a generous surplus of reserve crown below the gum, which grow and develop, then erupt at the same rate as they wear

72

Impacted Teeth

Teeth, which have been prevented from erupting by some mechanical obstacle. Obstacles deprive teeth of the room the need to erupt normally. Impactions often create secondary reactions in alveoli or jaws, may be diagnosed by observation, palpation, or x-ray, or may require extraction or surgery to correct.

73

Incisor Table

The nipping or occlusal surface of the incisors

74

Inferior

Referring to what is below or lower; The mandible is inferior to the maxilla

75

Infundibulum

The tube like spaces found in the centres of both the incisors and the upper cheek teeth. In horses, the indundibulate, are filled or nearly filled with cementum.The infundibulum of an incisor is single and also called mark, spot or cup; The infundibulum of premolars and molars are double and form the hollow cylindrical tubes running down the tooth, which are visible especially after a cap is removed.

76

Insidious

Not apparent, hidden. As a disease that does not exhibit symptoms of its onset or progress

77

Instrument

In equine dentistry a piece of equipment used to examine, correct, compensate or equilibrate the dentition.

78

Larynx

A muscular and cartilaginous structure located at the upper part of the trachea and supported by the hyoid bones. It is lined with mucous membrane and houses the vocal cord.

79

Lateral Translation

Outward movement of the mandible. Lateral excursion in the horse may be restricted by, but not limited, to enamel rims and/or ridges built upon occlusal surfaces of the teeth

80

Loph, Lophodont

Primitively, the bodies of teeth are organised into cone-shaped cusps. Through the evolution of the horse family, rows of cusps became confluent to form lophs. Lophodont teeth are formed or characterised by lophs.

81

Malocclusion

The inability of the arcades of molars or incisors to fit together properly. Generally man made misalignment

82

Mandible

The jawbones; the jaw of the horse

83

Mandibular

Pertaining to the jaw; the moving part of the skull that effects grinding, cutting, or mastication.

84

Massetter

The largest muscle of mastication situated on the side of the cheek. Function: to bring the jaw together and acts unilaterally to achieve a sideways action.

85

Masticate

The act of chewing and preparing food for fermentation by grinding, or cutting

86

Maxilla

The upper or stationary skull containing the wider arcades of molars in the horse

87

Medullary

The centre or core of a structure, such as brain, kidney, tooth, etc.

88

Mesial

Toward the middle or centre. E.g. the central incisors are mesial to the lateral incisors.

89

Molar

One of the accessional or permanent teeth. Molars have no deciduous predecessors in the dental arcades.

90

Mucous Membrane

Epithelial tissue richly supplied with cells, which can secrete mucous. Lines not only the mouth, but also other body orifices such as the anus, vagina, eyelids, nostrils, etc

91

Natural Balance Dentistry

Anatomical alignment of dental occlusal surface-to-surface contact to promote proper anterior/posterior guidance and lateral translation of the mandible, maximising surface-to-surface contact of the teeth and maintaining cutting edge of molars as nature intended. This is all based on natural length and angle of incisors.

92

Occlude

Indicates surface-to-surface contact; to meet closely or fit into each other as opposing teeth in the upper and lower arcades.

93

Occlusion

Surface-to-surface contact between opposing teeth. Created by contraction of muscles

94

Disclusion

Spacing of molar table surface-to-surface contact when animal is in motion or not eating and incisors are in contact.

95

Ossify, Ossifying, Ossification

The convert into bone, to harden like bone

96

Orthodontic

Realignment of misaligned or mispositioned teeth

97

Palate

The roof of the mouth

98

Palatal Drape

A long, posterior extension of the soft palate in horses which aids in isolation of the food stream from the air stream

99

Palatine Artery

The largest artery that lies just inside the upper arcades of molars in the soft tissues forming the roof of the mouth

100

Paradigm

An example serving as a model or pattern. A set of ideas, which also accurate predictions to be made, and within which any given science proceeds.

101

Periosteum

The tough elastic membrane covering the surface of bone shafts; its function is to protect the bone, support the blood vessels and nerves and provide a source for cells, which engender growth at the bone surface.

102

Periostitus

Inflammation of the periosteum

103

Periodontal disease

Any of various bacterial infections that affect the soft tissues and bones supporting the teeth.

104

Periodontal Ligaments

Tough, short fibres that secure the neck of the tooth to the rim of the alveolus and perform like shock absorbers to dampen occlusal pressures; from which arise cells that produce cementum. Chronic tension on periodontal ligament fibres from pressure or loosening of the tooth in the socket may induce formation of excessive cementum, ankylosing tooth and alveolus.

105

Pharynx

The tube or cavity, with its surrounding membrane and muscles that connect the mouth and nasal passages with the oesophagus and larynx.

106

Premaxilla

Either of two bones in the skull of vertebrates; situated between and in front of the maxilla.

107

Premolars

The first of four teeth in each arcade of cheek teeth. These teeth are either deciduous or permanent premolars.
The wolf tooth is regarded as the first premolar

108

Prophylaxis

1. The prevention of a specific disease
2. Prophylactic treatment, balancing teeth by an equine dentist
3. Regular dental maintenance to prevent and control periodontal disease

109

Prognathic

Having a projecting jaw

110

Prognathism

Abnormal protrusion of the mandible

111

Point of beginning

Incisors of the horse adjusted to a natural length and angle of that of a 5 year old - in a perfect world ;-)

112

Protuberant

Higher than the surrounding surface. In equine dentistry it is usually the high area of the erupting hypsodont tooth.

113

Pulp Chamber or Pulp Cavity

Cavities in the lower central portion of the horses´teeth, which houses nerves and blood vessels that give vitality to the tooth.

114

Putrification

The process of organic decomposition

115

Quidding

Chewing grass without swallowing it

116

Ramp

A ski-jump like appearance of a molar, can occur at the front or back, upper or lower molar

117

Ramus

The process projecting above from the posterior part of either side of the mandible

118

Reserve Crown

In hypsodont teeth, that which is below the gum line and has yet to erupt. The height of the reserve crown determines the usable life of the tooth. In horses all teeth but the canines.

119

Retrognathia

Underdevelopment of the maxilla and/or mandible

120

Root

Invisible part of the tooth, the part that lies below the gum in human teeth; in horses teeth the root starts at the base of the reserve crown where the enamel folds cease.

121

Root Canal

The pulp chamber of the tooth

122

Sagittal

A body plane corresponding with or parallel to the vertebral column. The medial sagittal plane divides the body into right and left halves.

123

Selenodont

A tooth structure in which cusps have become confluent to form crescents, found in cattle and other clove-footed ruminants; This tooth structure functionally parallels the lophodontry characteristic of horses;

124

Shear Mouth

Extreme angulations of the molar arcades grinding surface

125

Centric Occlusion

The alignment of the mandibular cheek teeth and incisors with the maxillary cheek teeth and incisors when the mandible is closed and centred and the mouth is correct to the body or whole.

126

Stepped Mouth

A distinct bump (or series) in the molar arcade; Where one or more teeth are longer than their neighbours.

127

Stomatitius

Inflammation of the oral mucosa due to local or systemic factors

128

Subluxation

A partial dislocation of a joint

129

Supernumerary

An extra tooth that is not a normal part of the dentition

130

Symphysis

1. The growing together, as that of the two halves of the mandible
2. A line junction

131

Tables of Cheek Teeth

The grinding or occlusal surface of the premolars and molars

132

Temporo

Temples of the head

133

Three Point Balance

1. The right and left TMJ are centric unto themselves
2. The cheek teeth
3. The incisors natural length and angle
Maximise surface-to-surface contact, a must for total balance of whole body

134

Transverse

Lying across, crosswise

135

Ulcer

A local defect, or excavation of the surface of an organ or tissue which is produced by the sloughing of necrotic inflammatory tissue.

136

Vestigial

Relating to the remnant of a structure that functioned in a previous stage of species or individual development