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Flashcards in Terms Deck (100):
1

Government with checks and balances as well as separation of powers

Limited government

2

Establishing a balance of power between the three branches of government.

Checks and balances

3

The president is indirectly elected by the people through this entity

Electoral College

4

Pseudonym of New York governor George Clinton

Cato

5

Essays compiled and published in May 1778

Federalist Papers

6

A close alliance of sovereign states

Confederation

7

One house congress

Unicameral

8

Was written by Thomas Jefferson and proposed the creation of 10 new states.

Ordinance of 1784

9

Original U.S. currency

Continental dollars

10

Was a gathering of America's greatest minds, tasked with creating a new governing document.

Constitutional convention

11

To settle the issue on how slaves should be counted, delegates established the _____-______ __________

Three-Fifths Compromise

12

Changes to the constitution, are also an expression of the people's sovereignty.

Amendments

13

Alexander Hamilton's penn name

Publius

14

The founders designed the national government to prevent any group or individual from gaining too much power

Separation of powers

15

Was not well attended, only 5 states bothered to send representatives.

Annapolis Convention

16

Insurrection of farmers against the courts in western Massachusetts.

Shay's Rebellion

17

A group of military officers that wanted to establish a new government.

Newburgh Conspiracy

18

Resulted in the creation of Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, and Wisconsin

Northwest Ordinance of 1787

19

The greatest triumph in foreign affairs for America's first government.

Treaty of Paris

20

America's first governing document.

Articles of Confederation

21

Organized the executive branch into three departments.

George Washington

22

America's first secretary of the treasury.

Alexander Hamilton

23

First 10 amendments

Bill of Rights

24

Those who hold to a close reading of the constitutional text.

Strict constructionists

25

The debt monetizing section of Hamilton's report on public credit.

Funding

26

Adams tried to squeeze in as many new Supreme Court justices as possible before Jefferson took over.

Midnight Appointments

27

Madison's response to the Alien and Sedition Acts.

Virginia Resolutions

28

America's somewhat humiliating peace negotiation with France.

XYZ Affair

29

looked to the future and not the past.

Washington's "Farewell Address"

30

attempted to persuade America to take side with the French against the British.

Citizen Genét

31

Without congressional approval, this president organized three departments in the executive branch.

George Washington

32

Brilliant and ambitious, was appointed to be America's first Secretary of the Treasury.

Alexander Hamilton

33

What emerged in 1791 after gaining approval of three-fourths of the states

Bill of Rights

34

Interpret the constitution as narrowly as possible.

Strict constructionists

35

Pursuing a middle course, president Washington said "No." to both republicans and federalists and issued this in April 1793.

Proclamation of Neutrality

36

Became the 2nd president of the United States.

John Adams

37

In ______________ _____________ __________, he was looking not at the past, but to the future.

Washington's "Farewell Address"

38

favor flexibility in interpreting the constitution.

Loose constructionists

39

He was chosen to be the very first head of the state department.

Thomas Jefferson

40

Increased the number of federal judges.

Judiciary Act of 1801

41

Organized 13 district courts, 1 per state.

Judiciary Act of 1789

42

Introduced amendments to the constitution to protect individual rights.

James Madison

43

National government's takeover of all state debts.

Assumption

44

Claimed to be the true keepers of the constitutional flame.

Federalists

45

Viewed themselves as the last line of defense between tyranny and liberty.

Democratic-Republicans

46

Chunk of land in the southwest that was bought from Mexico for $10 mil in 1853.

Gadsden Purchase

47

Mexican port city which was captured by General Scott and the Americans in less than 3 weeks.

Vera Cruz

48

Known as the "pathfinder of the west"

John C. Fremont

49

Climax and most violent phase of Manifest Destiny

Mexican War

50

Determined the final borders between Maine and Canada.

Webster-Ashburton Treaty

51

Was one of the most famous missionaries in the Oregon territory.

Marcus/Narcissa Whitman

52

The Mexican assault against the Alamo was led by who?

Santa Anna

53

Was the most important way for settlers to go west.

Oregon Trail

54

Remained in president Tyler's cabinet even after everyone else resigned.

Daniel Webster

55

He is the president nicknamed "young hickory"

James K. Polk

56

Explored California and helped conquer it from Mexican for the U.S.

John C. Fremont

57

Ended hostilities between Mexico and the U.S.

Treaty of Guadaluppe Hidalgo

58

Real head of the Whig Party and tried to get president Tyler to submit to him.

Henry Clay

59

One of the heroes for Texas' war for independence.

Sam Houston

60

Where the Texans made a heroic last stand.

The Alamo

61

Where the spark that led to the civil War was ignited

Fort Sumter

62

First president of the confederacy.

Jefferson Davis

63

The constitutional union's candidate for president in the election of 1860.

John Bell

64

The group that supported John Brown's raid

The Secret Six

65

Where John Brown's men killed 5 pro-slavery settlers

Pottawottamie Massacre

66

Proposed that the U.S. should prohibit slavery in any territory acquired by Mexico.

Wilmot Proviso

67

The residence of a territory should decide the status of slavery in their territory.

Popular sovereignty

68

"Free soil, free speech, free labor, and free men." Was the slogan of this party.

Free soil

69

Supporting the Compromise of 1850, the democratic nominee for president in 1852

Franklin Pierce

70

To win southern support for his railroad, Stephen A. Douglas proposed this

Kansas-Nebraska Act

71

For a time, it looked the like the Whigs would be replaced by this party, also known as the American party.

Know-nothings

72

Republican nominee for president in 1856

John C. Fremont

73

When pro-slavery ruffians burned, looted, and destroyed a town in Kansas.

Sack of Lawrence

74

A Supreme Court case in 1856 that only agitated the conflict over slavery.

Dred Scott vs. Sanford

75

Group of men that supported John Brown's plan for a slave revolt.

Secret Six

76

South Carolina's declaration of independence.

Ordinance of Secession

77

Leave the union.

Secede

78

Territory could still prohibit slavery by refusing to adopt laws, establishing and protecting it.

Freeport Doctrine

79

The real successor to the Whig Party.

Republican Party

80

Whig candidate for president in 1848

Zachary Taylor

81

According to this view, each state was largely an independent entity join in a voluntary compact of union.

States' rights

82

The timely arrival of South Carolina Barnard Bee and Virginia _______ J _______ helped the Confederates win the first battle of the Civil War

Thomas J. Jackson

83

The Confederacy was the first to reveal this new weapon (an iron-plated warship)

Ironclad

84

With General Johnston wounded, President Davis turned to Robert E. Lee to command this army

Army of Northern Virginia

85

After the Second ________ of ________ Lee had cleared practically all of Virginia of Federal forces.

Second Battle of Manassas

86

After this Union victory, Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclomation

Antietam

87

The Confederate victory at this battle came at a high price. General Stonewall Jackson was shot by his own men and eventually died.

Battle of Chancellorsville

88

Grant and the Union army technically won, but it was a costly victory. Each side suffered more than 10,000 men killed and wounded.

Battle of Shiloh

89

A controversial incident in which the US offended the British and narrowly avoided them entering the war on the Confederate side.

Trent Affair

90

Lincoln used his speech to eloquently praise the common courage and sacrifice of the soldiers of both the North and South.

Gettysburg Address

91

The second A-bomb fell on _______, and this led to the Japanese surrender.

Nagasaki

92

Where did the Big Three meet at to plan the conclusion of the war in the Pacific?

Potsdam

93

Roosevelt tapped a little-known senator from Missouri named _______ _______ for Vice President.

Harry Truman

94

Largest sea battle in history and a critical blow to Japanese naval and air forces.

Battle of Leyte Gulf

95

Operation Overlord began on June 6, 1944, also known as

D-Day

96

Congress appropriated $7 bill to provide supplies for the embattled Allied nations

Lend-Lease Act

97

Quite possibly the turning point of the war in the Pacific

Battle of Midway

98

"The Desert Fox"

Erwin Rommel

99

Commander of Operation Torch, and future US president

Dwight D. Eisenhower

100

The invasion of Italy, beginning with Sicily

Operation Husky