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Flashcards in Terms Deck (40)
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1

Macule

Primary
- «Hypo- or hyperpigmentation in skin or mucous membrane, not detectable by touch»
- Exo-/endogenous reason
- Exo: carotene, endo:melanin
- Example: nevi (flat)
*Colors: red, blue, brown, white, yellow, black/grey

2

Patch

Primary
- «Macule greater than 1 cm»
- Example: vitiligo

3

Papule

Primary
- «Palpable cellular infiltrate of dermis less than 1 cm in diameter»
- Cells: inflammatory or tumor cells
- if not dermis: epidermal papule
- Example: psoriasis guttata, nevi (raised)

4

Nodule

Primary
- «Palpable solid lesion greater than 1 cm (L: usually greater than 2 cm) due to a cellular infiltration in reticular dermis and subcutis»
- Example: Erythema nodosum, Lupus panniculitis, atypical mycobacteriosis

5

Tumor

Primary
- L: «Tumor cell infiltration in any layer of the skin»
- «Solid mass of skin or subcutaneous tissue, larger than a nodule/2cm(??)»
- Example: malignant melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, mycosis fungoides, pigmented nevus

6

Plaque

Primary
- «Cellular infiltration in papillary dermis equal to or greater than 1 cm in diameter»
- Cells: inflammatory or tumor cells
- Infiltrate dermis - if not: epidermal plaque
* If affect whole body area: erythroderma
- Example: psoriasis vulgaris, mycosis fungioides, pityriasis rosea, sarcoidosis

7

Vesicle

Primary
- «Cavity less than 0,5 cm in diameter within or below epidermis containing serous or hemorrhagic fluid»
- Usually elevated - not always
- No epithelial wall
- Example: Herpes labialis, dermatitis herpetiform, hand-foot-mouth disease, acute contact dermatitis

8

Examples of epidermal papule/plaque

Condyloma accuminatum, verruca vulgaris (wart)

9

Tuber

Primary
- «Highly elevated lesions due to cellular infiltration in the reticular dermis and subcutis»
- Cells: granuloma or tumor cells
- Example: cutaneous tuberculosis, mycosis fungoides, cutaneous sarcoidosis

10

Gumma

Primary
- «Tuber due to tertiary syphilis»

11

Wheal

Primary (=urtica, hive)
- «Circumscribed edema of the dermis»
- Raised, highly pruritic, transitory
- Example: urticaria, Quincke’s edema

12

Bulla

Primary (=blister)
- «Like vesicle, but greater than 0,5 cm in diameter»
- Example: Bullous pemphigoid, pemphigus vulgaris, 2nd degree burns, contagious impetigo

13

Pustule

Primary
- «Like vesicle or bulla, but filled with pus, snd can sit in any layer of the skin»
- Yellow due to WBCs
- NOT always due to infection (sterile)
- Examples: Acne vulgaris, furuncle, pustular psoriasis, pityrosporum folliculitis

14

Cyst

Primary
- «Cavity (closed sac) in skin containing air, serous, pustular or hemorrhagic fluid, or semi-fluid material (eg sebum). It’s covered by an epithelial wall»
- Examples: epidermal cyst, eccrine hydrocystoma, cystic basal cell cc

15

Erosion

Secondary
-«Horizontal lack of a part of the skin. Does not involve subcutis»
- Usually due to rupture of vesicles, blisters, pustules
- Examples: Bullous pemphigoid, pemphigus vulgaris, contagious impetigo

16

Ulcer

Secondary
- «Lack of all layers of the skin, anatomic units under skin visible (eg subcutis, muscles)»
- Usually due to skin necrosis
- Examples: leg ulcer, 3rd degree burns, necrobiosis lipoidica, echtyma, tuberculosis cutis, malum perforans pedis, primary syphilis

17

Excoriation

Secondary
- «Erosion or ulcer due to (!) scratching»
- Example: atopic dermatitis

18

Fissure

Secondary (=rhagas)
- «Vertical cleft in the skin that develop spontaneously (not surgical)»
- Usually on chronic plaques and with hemorrhagic crusts
- Examples: psoriasis vulgaris

19

Crust

Secondary
- «Dried tissue fluids such as pus or blood mixed with epithelial and/or bacterial debris»
- Example: pemphigus vulgaris, impetigo

20

Fistula

Secondary
- «Abnormal connection between a hollow space (usually cyst/hollow organ) and the skin surface»
- Example: from an epidermal cyst

21

Scaling

Secondary (=peeling, desquamation)
- «Shedding of the outermost layer of the skin»
- Manifestations: pityriasiform, psoriasiform, lamellar
- Examples: psoriasis vulgaris, pityriasis rosea, lamellar ichthyosis, solar dermatitis

22

Lichenification

Secondary
- «Increase in skin lines, wrinkles and creases from chronic inflammation and rubbing»
- Examples: atopic dermatitis, Sézary syndrome, chronic contact dermatitis

23

Atrophy

Secondary
- «Partial or complete wasting away (shrinking, involution, incomplete development) of the skin»
- Examples: Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus, scar, steroid atrophy, chronic discoid lupus erythematosus

24

Scar

Secondary (=cicatrix)
- «Fibrous regeneration tissue due to wound repair in the skin replacing normal skin after injury of the dermis and/or subcutis»
- Common after healing of ulcer, excoriation and fissure, but NOT after erosion!
- Examples: scarring, alopecia, trauma, keloid

25

Lesions NOT found on mucous membranes

- Tuber
- Nodule
- Urtica
- Pustule
- Crust
- Fissure
- Lichenification
- Excoriation

26

Distribution of skin lesions

1) Generalized, symmetric (circulating factors)
2) Localized
3) Along the invisible lines of skin
4) At entry site of skin arteries

27

Invisible lines (3)

1) Blaschko’s lines (embryonic epidermal cell migration)
2) Dermatomes (supplied by a single pair of dorsal roots or by trigeminal nerve)
3) Tension lines (Langer’s lines)

28

Name all 12 (15) primary lesions

1) Macule
2) Papule (+epidermal ‘’)
3) Pustule
4) Nodule
5) Patch
6) Plaque (+epidermal plaque)
7) Tumor
8) Tuber (+Gumma)
9) Vesicle
10) Bullae
11) Wheal/urtica
12) Cyst

29

Name all 10 secondary lesions

1) Scale/peeling/desquamation
2) Crust/hemorrhagic crust
3) Atrophy
4) Lichenification
5) Erosion
6) Excoriation
7) Fissure
8) Ulceration
9) Scar/cicatrix
10) Fistule

30

H1 - receptor antagonists (3)

1) Clemastin - Tavegyl
2) Dimethinden - Fenistil
3) Cetirizin - Zyrtec (not in pregnancy - slightly anticholinergic, quick)

4) Loratidine - Claritine (no sedative effects)
5) Ketotifen - Zaditen (slow, long-lasting, asthma)