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Flashcards in Test 1 Deck (97):
1

Evolution
Fact
Hypothesis
Theory
Law
All life exists in ecosystems and environments
Cells are the basic units of life
Understanding behavior requires understanding the relationship between structure and function
Homeostasis
Living organisms carry out functions at different levels of organization simultaneously

Core Principles of Physiology

2

Lineage shows ____ over _____. They ____.

descendants; time; evolve

3

Node

A split

4

Common ancestor

Root

5

Any group of species we name

Taxon

6

Any taxon consisting of all evolutionary descendants of a common ancestor

Clade

7

Closest related species

Sister species

8

Closest related clade

Sister clade

9

Derived ___ come from ____.

traits; adaptations

10

When two species can share a trait but it doesn't make them related

Shared trait

11

Biological classification

Domain
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species

12

1st name:
2nd name:

Identifies the genus
Identifies the species

13

Prokaryotes

Fission
Circular DNA - no nucleus
No membrane bound organelles

14

Eukaryotes

Mitosis/Meiosis
Linear DNA
Membrane enclosed organelles

15

What do all domains have/can do?

A plasma membrane
Metabolic pathways
Replicate DNA
Ribosomes
Transcription/Translation
Peptides

16

Name the characteristics of animals.

Multicellular
Complex development from single celled zygote to adult
Heterotrophs
Internal Digestion
A gut
Motile

17

Motile

Animals that move on their own

18

Diploblastic

Body is derived from only two embryonic cell layers

19

Sponges and coelenterates are ______.

Diploblastic

20

Ectoderms and endoderms are ______.

Diploblasitc

21

Sponges and coelenterates are not ______.

Tripoblastic

22

Ectoderms, endoderms, and mesoderms are ______.

Tripoblastic

23

Tripoblastic

body is derived from three embryonic cell layers

24

All multicellular animals except sponges and coelenterates are _____.

Tripoblastic

25

Symmetry is:

Radial vs bilateral

26

Radial symmetry

All around

27

Bilateral symmetry

Down the center

28

Hollow ball of cells

Blastula

29

Cells move ____ to form _____ ______.

inward; germ layers

30

Blastopore

Opening of indentation

31

When the blastopore becomes the mouth

Protosome

32

When the blastopore becomes the anus

Deuterosome

33

Coelom

The presence of a body cavity

34

Coeloms are _____ _____.

fluid filled

35

Muscle surrounds the ____ and _____.

coelom; organs

36

Pseudocoelom surrounded by _____, but no muscle goes around _____. Also are ______ ______.

muscle; organs; fluid filled

37

Cells are bathed in ____ _____ that protects them from the ____ ____.

extracellular fluid; external environment

38

Maintenance of stable conditions in the internal environment

Homeostasis

39

Negative feedback

Stabilizer

40

Positive feedback

Amplifies a response and usually empties a body cavity

41

Name the four types of tissue

Epithelial
Connective
Muscle
Nervous

42

Organ

An assembly of tissues that have a specific function

43

Organ system

System made up of multiple organs

44

Muscle tissues ____ and ____ to generate ____ and ______.

contract; relax; force; movement

45

Name the three types of muscle tissue:

Skeletal
Cardiac
(Both striated)
Smooth

46

What are three types of connective tissue?

Bone
Blood
Adipose (fat)

47

What are the two types of nervous cell types?

Neurons and glial

48

Make up central/peripheral nervous systems
Produce action potentials

Neurons

49

Supply nutrients
Remove pathogens
O2 to neurons
No electrical impulses

Glial cells

50

Temperature and ____ affect all biological processes.

homeostasis

51

Q10

Describes the temperature sensitivity of a reaction

52

_____ _______ destabilizes membranes and denatures proteins.

High temperature

53

______ _______ causes ice crystals and membranes to have less fluid.

Low temperature

54

Ice crystals cause:

Damage to cells and cell membrane

55

When membranes have less fluid the _____ changes.

permeability

56

Heat shock proteins help ____ proteins.

refold

57

Antifreeze proteins ____ _____ the growth of ___ ____.

slow down; ice crystals

58

Heat shock proteins and antifreeze proteins are _______ ______.

adaptive responses

59

Change of lipids (fluidity), hibernation, estivation, and torpor are also _____ ____.

Adaptive responses

60

Endotherms _____ ____ ____ by _____ ______.

regulate body temperature; producing heat

61

Ectoderms' ____ _____ is determined by the ______.

body temperature; environment

62

The rate at which the body uses energy while at rest to keep vital functions going, such as breathing and keeping warm.

Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)

63

When animals get cold they ____, which causes their ______ _______ to _____.

shiver; skeletal muscles; contract

64

Fever fights ____.

pathogens

65

______ ______ is a form of non-shivering heat production.

Brown fat

66

Rich in mitochondria and blood vessels

Brown fat

67

What kind of signals do organisms have?

Electrical and chemical

68

Hormones are what kind of signals?

Chemical

69

Hormones are secreted by the ______ _______.

endocrine system

70

A.) Work at a distance
B.) Work in low concentration
C.) Effect is usually long lasting
These are functional characteristics of what?

Hormones

71

_________ signals feed back and "recycle."

Autocrine

72

Chemical signal influences the cell that released it

Autocrine signal

73

Chemical signal affects cells near the cell that released it

Paracrine

74

______ must be present for the cell to respond.

Receptors

75

What are the three groups of hormones?

Peptide/polypeptide (insulin)
Steroid (testosterone)
Amine (epinephrine)

76

Proteins
Water soluble (hydrophilic/lipophobic)
Can't diffuse through the membrane
Are all characteristics of _______ _________.

peptide/polypeptide hormones

77

Made from cholesterol
Lipid soluble
Diffuse out of cell and carried by carrier proteins in blood
Are all characteristics of _______ _________.

steroid hormones

78

Usually a derivitive of tyrosine
Some are lipid soluble, others aren't
Are all characteristics of _______ _________.

amine hormones

79

Where are receptors found?

Cell surface
Cytoplasm
Nucleus

80

______ are:
Specific
Will bind to chemical signals
Trigger responses

Receptors

81

______ stimulates the fight or flight response.

Epinephrine

82

1) Brain detects danger and sends info to the adrenal glands and leg muscles
2) Adrenal gland releases epinephrine
3) Heart beats faster and faster
4) Liver breaks down glycogen into glucose
5) More blood flows to the "escape" muscles
6) Fat cells release fatty acids

How epinephrine stimulates the fight or flight response

83

The _______ is part of the brain.

hypothalamus

84

There are two parts to the _____ ______.

pituitary gland

85

Develops from the roof of the mouth and has no neurons

Anterior pituitary gland

86

Neural tissue (where neurons from hypothalamus terminate)

Posterior pituitary gland

87

The _____ ______ ______ releases hormones made in _____ ______ of the _________.

posterior pituitary gland; cell bodies; hypothalamus

88

Neurohormones
Antidiuretic hormones
Oxytocin
Are all:

Hormones that the posterior pituitary gland releases

89

Hypothalamic neurons release ______ that travel through the _____ ______.

neurohormones; portal system

90

Portal blood vessels are _____ that _____ the ______ to ______ ________.

capillaries; connect; hypothalamus; action potentials

91

The anterior pituitary gland releases ______ ______.

tropic hormones

92

Tropic hormones ______ the activity of other _______ glands.

control; endocrine

93

Luteinizing (LH)
Follicle-stimulating (FSH)
Etc. are:

Tropic hormones

94

Non tropic hormones _____ cells to divide or breast tissue to produce milk.

stimulate

95

Other types of hormones include:

Growth hormones
Prolactin

96

Thyrotropin

A releasing hormone

97

1) Hypothalamus:
- Releases _____.
- _____ travels to the _____ _______.
2) Anterior pituitary:
- ______ thyrotropin as a ______ stimulating hormone that travels to the ______.
3) Thyroid:
- Releases thyroid hormones ____ and _____, which are _____ hormones.


thyrotropin
Thyrotropin; anterior pituitary

Releases; thyroid; thyroid

T3; T4; amine