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Flashcards in Test 1 Deck (56):
1

Binomial nomeclature

-has 2 names Genus species
-first letter of Genus always capitalized
-always italicized (underlined if handwritten)
-Genus can be abbreviated once it has been used

2

Genus

Morphology
Shape and arragement

3

Resolution

the ability to see two itmes as seperate and distinct objects (light must be able to pass between the two objectsin order for them to be as seperate)

4

ocular lens

eye piece 10x

5

objective lens

10x 40x 100x

6

stage

supports specimen (slide)

7

Iris diaphram

regualtes brightness of light going through lenses

8

Condenser

concentrates and directs light onto specimen

9

Course-asjustment knob

moves stages up and down in large increments

10

Fine-adjustment knob

used for fine focusing
moves stage in small increments

11

Eukaryotic cells

-have true nucleus
-have membrane bound organelles
-larger than prokaryotic cells

12

Prokaryotic cells

-no true nucleus
-no membrane bound organelles
-very small
ex. bacteria

13

Leukocytes- Granulocytes

Neutrophil
Basolphil
Eosinophil

14

Leukocytes- Agranulocytes

Monocyte
Lymphocyte

15

Neutrophil

spotty

16

Basophil

Jagged edges and nearly covers the entire cells

17

Eosinophil

2 distinct spots with stuff inside WBC
(earth w/2 continents)

18

Monocyte

Kidney bean shaped

19

Lymphocyte

3/4 moon shape

20

Cocci

spherical

21

Bacilli

Rod

22

Spirillum

Spiral

23

Cocci div of 1 plane

Diplococcus (pair of cocci)
Streptococcus (chain of cocci)

24

Cocci div of 2 plane

Tetrad (square of four cocci)

25

Cocci div of 3 plane

Sarcina (cube of 8 cocci)

26

Pair of bacilli

Diplobacilli

27

Chain of bacilli

Streptobacillus

28

Oval shaped-rod that is difficult to discern cocci

Coccobacillus

29

Vibrio

comma-shaped rod

30

Spirillus

rigid, wavy, sprial-shaped

31

Spirocochete

Flexible, corkscrew-shaped

32

Basic stain

-positive charge stain
-bacterial cytoplasm negative charge
-orgainism directly charged
(meth. blue, chrystal violet (purple), safrinin (red-pink)

33

Negative/Acidic stain

- stain has negative charge
-bacterial cytoplasm has negative charge
-neg cyto and neg stain repel each other
-organism indirectly stained

34

Basic staining steps

1. flame slide (let cool)
2. drops of water
3. bacteria
4. air dry the smear
5. heat fix the smear
6. stain the heat fixed smear for 60 sec

35

Negative stain steps

1. flame slide (let cool)
2. drops of negrosin at end of slide
3. add bacteria
4. with clean slide spread mixture down the length of the slide
5. air dry

36

In a Gram stain how long does crystal violet stand

30 seconds

37

In a Gram stain how long does Gram's Iodine stand

1 minute

38

In Gram stain how long does 95% ethanol stand

25-30 seconds until the crystal violet fails to wash from the side

39

In Gram stain how long does safrain stand

60-80 seconds

40

Order of steps in Gram staining

1. Crystal Violet
2. Gram's Iodine
3. 95% ethanol
4. safranin
(rinse with water between each step)

41

Morphology and gram reaction of Staphylococcus aureus

Staphylococcus- cluster of cocci
Gram Positive

42

Morphology and gram reaction of Escherichia coli

Bacilli- rod
Gram negative

43

Morphology and gram reaction of Bacillus subtillis

Streptobacilli- chain of rod
Gram positive

44

Gram positive cells stain what color

purple

45

Gram negative cells stain what color

Pink

46

Environmental sampling

1. label bottom of plate with location
2. sterile swab and run cotton over surface
3. roll cotton swab back and forth over agar

47

Streak Plate

1. streak loop full of bacteria into section A
2. drag loop through A into B and streak
3. drag loop through B into C and streak
4. drag loop through C and streak spaciously into D

48

Dilutions

Transfer 1.0 ml from original culture to -1, 1.0ml from -1 to -2 etc. 0.1ml from tubes -3, -4, -5 to the coresponding agar plates

49

During dilutions how many colonies are needed on agar plates

30-300

50

Serial dilution

to calculate the colony forming units/ml of orginal culture

51

Formula for calculation

CFU/ml= [# of colonies counted/volume plated] x dilution factor (DF)

52

Differentail stain developed by

Hans Christains Gram in 1884

53

Gram positive cells have what layer in their cell wall

Thick peptidoglycan

54

Enterococci

Can survive for months, lives in human digestive system and female genitail tract. Significant part of the normal bacterial population. Colonization can progress to infection, infection can lead to diseases of urinary tract, bloodstream, heart valves, and brain

55

NIH says

Prevention. Gram-negative bacterial infectons occur through cross-contamination between people. Hand washing, gloves and gowns can reduce the bacteria. Vaccines are not available for most Gram-negative bacteria

56

Age of culture is important because...

Old Gram postive cells decolorize more easily than young cells- may appear Gram negative