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Flashcards in Test 1 Deck (38):
0

Anton Von Leewenhoek was the first person in history to

View Protozoa and bacteria

1

Koch's postulates provided guidelines for

Relating certain microorganisms with certain diseases

2

Which of the following individuals pioneered the use of chemicals to reduce the incidence of infections

Lister

3

Pasteur developed a successful vaccine against

Rabies and anthrax

4

Paul Ehrlich used chemotherapy to treat

Syphilis

5

John Snow's research during a cholera outbreak in London laid the foundation for which of the following branches of microbiology

Epidemiology

6

Which of the following is an incorrect pairing:

Fungi-photosynthetic
Protozoa-unicellular
Viruses-acellular parasites
Algae-aquatic and marine habitats
Prokaryotes-no nuclei

Fungi-photosynthetic

7

The first disease proven to be bacterial in origin was

Anthrax

8

Which of the following is an incorrect pairing:

Lister-carbolic acid
Leeuwenhoek-animalcules
Pasteur-anthrax vaccine
Jenner-cowpox
Snow-syphilis

Snow- syphilis

9

Semmelweiss showed that the transmission of disease could be interrupted by

Hand washing

10

In 1854, John Snow determined thatcontaminated water transmits

Cholera

11

Which of the following is smallest

AIDS virus
Red blood cell
Bacteria
They are all the same size

Aids virus

12

The major defining difference between a prokaryotic and a eukaryotic cell is

The absence of membrane-bound organelles in prokaryotes

13

Most bacteria divide by a process called

Binary fission

14

Which of the following are prokaryotic:

Fungi
Bacteria
Protozoa

Bacteria

15

What do the nucleus and the nucleoid have in common?

They both contain DNA

16

Ribosomes

Can be affected when certain antimicrobial drugs interfere with their activity and are found in the cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells

17

All of the following are true concerning pili except:

Not all bacteria have pili
Pili are longer than fimbriae and flagella
Pili are composed of protein called pilin
A bacterial cell will usually have one or two pili
Pili facilitate the transfer of DNA among bacterial cells

Pili are longer than fimbriae and flagella

18

Cells of the genus Mycoplasma lack which of the following:

A cell wall
A cell membrane
Peptidoglycan

A cell wall and peptidoglycan

19

Peptidoglycan is

Composed if NAG, NAM, and LPS, and is present in all prokaryotic cells

20

Which of the following chemical substances contributes to the unique characteristics of acid-fast bacteria

Mycolic acid

21

Which of the following is NOT true of endospores:

Endospores are dormant
Bacillus and Clostridium are genera that produce them
Endospores are resistant to boiling and chemicals
Endospores are reproductive structures

Endospores are reproductive structures

22

Each of the following statements concerning bacterial and human cells is correct EXCEPT:

Bacteria derive their energy tv oxidative phosphorylation within mitochondria in a manner similar to human cells

23

You are observing a cell through a microscope and nite that has no apparent nucleus. You conclude it most likely

Has a peptidoglycan cell wall

24

You are looking at a white cottony growth on a culture medium. Microscopic examination reveals it is multicellular. Which of the following conclusions about this organism is false?

It has cell walls. It has DNA enclosed in its nucleus. It is eukaryotic. It is a bacterium. It absorbs organic nutrients.

It is a bacterium.

25

Place the steps of the Gram Stain in the correct order:
1- Alcohol acetone 2-crystal violet 3-safranin 4-iodine

2 4 1 3

26

The purpose of a mordant in the gram stain is

To prevent the crystal violet from leaving the cells

27

A microbiologist makes a fixed smear of bacterial cells and stains them with Loeffler's methylene blue. All the cells appear blue under the oil lens. This is an example of.

Simple staining

28

Endospores

Can be produced when nutrients are scarce

29

Which of the following is not found in all bacteria?

Ribosome
Nucleoid
Plasma membrane
Capsule
Or all are found in bacteria

Capsule

30

Which of the following is not a characteristic of the plasma membrane?

Selective permeability
Contains proteins
Maintains cell shape
Phospholipid bilayer
All of these are characteristics

Maintains cell shape

31

What is true about osmosis

If a cell is in a hypertonic solution, water leaves the cell in an attempt to balance concentration of solutes and reach equilibrium

32

Axial filaments are found on

Spirochetes

33

What is the most accurate comparison of human, bacterial and fungal cells?

Human and fungal cells have similar ribosomes, whereas bacterial ribosomes are different.

34

Which is correct?

Pili mediate the interaction of bacteria with mucosal epithelium.
Polysaccharide capsules retard phagocytosis.
Both gram-negative rods and cocci have lipopolysccharide ("endotoxins") in their cell wall.
Bacterial flagella are non-antigenic in humans because they closely resemble human flagella in their chemical composition.

All are correct.

35

The dye methylene blue binds to DNA. What structure(s) in a yeast cell would be stained by this dye?

In the yeast cell the nucleus and the mitochondrion would be stained.

36

Are all bacteria motile? What is taxis and how does it relate to bacterial motility? What is meant by positive and negative taxis?

Not all bacteria are motile. Taxis is the movement of a bacteria toward a stimulus such as food or light. Positive taxis is when the bacteria moves toward the stimulus, and negative taxis is when the bacteria moves away from the stimulus.

37

Describe the prokaryotic ribosome and explain its importance to the organism and medical personnel.

The prokaryotic ribosome is a small inclusion in the cytoplasm of the cell that synthesizes proteins for the cell. It is 70S in size. A human ribosome is 80S in size. These ribosomes are important in medicine because they need to target the 70S ribosomes in order to prevent protein synthesis and stop the spread of disease.