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Flashcards in Test 1 Deck (222):
1

Who was the chronicler of the Persian wars?

Herodotus

2

"father of lies", "father of history"

Herodotus

3

who was accused of being a philobarbarian?

Herodotus

4

What was a prototype of a modern nation-state?

Persia was the prototype

5

civis sine suffragio

citizen without vote (Jewish residents of tarsus, a center of learning here the apostle Paul was born, were granted roman citizenship)

6

isegoria

equal rights in an assembly

7

primary elections

were adopted to counteract a restrictive system of recruitment, but with only partials success

8

modern freedom

1. private aspect:freedom from the political sphere
2. liberal aspect:occupational, educational, religious freedom
3. democratic aspect:accountability
4. contrast with people's democracies, which provide no opportunity to canvass alternatives

9

Who wrote essays in the history of ideas provides a model of this enterprise

Isaiah Berlin

10

What is the essence of a republic?

independence

11

What is Ecclesia?

assembly

12

What is another word for demes?

villages

13

why did the Greek states fail?

The war showed the strengths and weaknesses of democracy, 1. parochial attitudes, 2. rivalry overcame fear of non-Greek powers, 3. discovery of the federal state:lykian league

14

Cleisanthenes

started the process of increasingly radical democracy

15

prytany

cabinet, led by the president of the day (a position Socrates held at a critical moment in the trial of the generals), managing committee of the boule for a month

16

boule

governing council

17

strategoi

generals

18

for what city did the Athenians demand the surrender of?

Melos

19

What is another example of direct democracy?

ostracism

20

Who believed that slavery was natural?

Plato and Aristotle

21

social contract

based on the biblical concept of a covenant

22

George Mason

author of the Virginia declaration of rights, knew that faith is a matter of reason and conviction and cannot be coerced, first amendment later est the freedom of religion for the worlds first constitutional republic

23

oligarchy

democracy or the few, that slid toward an imperial dictatorship (what the greeks called tyranny)

24

Ambrose

the archbishop of milan, blocked his access to the cathedral and compelled him to do public penance

25

magna charta

presented it to the king by stephen langton, gave many rights that were previously not written down

26

Martin Luther

a monk and university professor, posted his 95 theses oat wittenberg

27

William wilberforce

a member of parliament, underwent an evangelical conversion in 1785 while on a lengthy tour of Europe in 1784-85

28

Athenian democracy

widened political participation beyond the aristocracy opening it to 10-15% of the population, but the experiment was unsustainable

29

middle ages

seen as a transition from the dark ages to the renaissance, has been depicted as a benighted sleep before the renaissance

30

Constitutional treaty

reflects a similar impulse to that of the french revolutionaries

31

Who was a cradle Calvinist who spent time in the leyden coffee houses, had the genius to be able to make these ideas acceptable to an Anglican and royalist community?

John Locke

32

Stephen Langton

introduced the magna charta to the king, archbishop of canterbury. murdered.

33

What represents individuality more, the cube or the cathedral?

the cathedral because every part is different, just like people. the cube, which is meant to celebrate individualism, is the same everywhere, each piece is the same.

34

Alexis de toqueville

sought to understand what made the difference between the two revolutions, singled out the Americans faith in a divine moral

35

what were Zeus's gifts?

two urns or casks

36

What is an expression of fatalism?

zeus's golden scales

37

what crushes victims and intoxicates victors

pitilessness of force

38

what is retribution?

the soul of the epic,

39

what is the greatest calamity?

that the human race can experience the destruction of a city

40

What is consent of the governed?

more far reaching than the modern social contract,

41

presumption of consent

not a rebuttable

42

Torah

learning

43

hegemony

generalship

44

western self-loathing

guilt manipulation

45

what is mimetic desire?

imitative desire in which what is desirable is modeled by someone else as something good and worthwhile to have

46

founding murderers

the bible reveals the truth about the things from the foundation of the world, that founding murders lie at the beginning of cultures, whether it is the death of Abel or remus

47

pharmakon

a poison but also perhaps a medicine

48

oriental despotism

only one man is free. the type of rule in persia

49

masses

a relatively new term, awakened proletarian masses to make the revolution that ushers in the socialist millennium, contemptuously in belittling the low tastes of the uncultivated masses, good naturedly when we welcome the huddled masses yearning to be fee, or simply a lot of people

50

despotes

master

51

synoikismos

The name given to polis formation by the Greeks themselves was synoikismos, literally a “gathering together.” Synoikismos could take one or both of two forms—it could be a physical concentration of the population in a single city or an act of purely political unification that allowed the population to continue living in a dispersed way.

52

Thetes

were free men, but without land or other resources. They were a class of farmers that emerged in areas where the status of individual property was in effect.

53

Who was Max Weber

statesman that focuses too narrowly on ultimate consequences may damage goals and discredit them because responsibility for consequences is lacking,

54

Who was Henry Kissinger?

scholars vs. statesmen, policymaker has responsibility for the worst that could happen, world of the contingent

55

legal status

being able to secure ones rights in court

56

circulation of the elites

it will ensure that incompetent elites are replaced by more competent elites

57

who said that freedom for the citizens of ancient republics like Sparta or Athens was a matter of having a share of the sovereign authority; it was essentially public and political. it cam at a high price; not only did such societies depend on the existence of slaves in order to free the citizens to o their citizen duties, but they were societies of mutual surveillance?

Benjamin Constant

58

machiavelli

basically believe that since human annture is the same at all times in all places, we can draw moral about what is likely to happen to us from what our predecessors have thought and done

59

physis

is a Greek theological, philosophical, and scientific term usually translated into English as "nature".

60

Dike

all in righteousness

61

nomos

in law, the concept of law in ancient Greek philosophy. The problems of political authority and the rights and obligations of citizens were a major concern in the thought of the leading Greek Sophists of the late 5th and early 4th centuries bc. They distinguished between nature (physis) and convention (nomos), putting laws in the latter category. Law generally was thought to be a human invention arrived at by consensus for the purpose of restricting natural freedoms for the sake of expediency and self-interest. This view of law as arbitrary and coercive was not conducive to social stability, however, and thus was amended by Plato and other philosophers, who asserted that nomos was, or at least could be, based upon a process of reasoning whereby immutable standards of moral conduct could be discovered, which could then be expressed in specific laws. The dichotomy between the negative and positive views of law was never actually resolved.

62

kallipolis

beautiful city

63

eudaeminia

hapiness

64

daimon

demon

65

what is timocracy?

honor supercedes wisdom

66

What does timocracy degenerate to?

oligarchy

67

What was Callicles error?

self-control is required for success in even wicked prljects

68

what did Callicles believe?

the good life consists of gratifying our impulses

69

What are two interpretations of Callicles views of life?

1. the good life is immoral or amoral
2. natural justice is transgressive: whatever one can get away with

70

what impels people to seek political power?

selfish motives

71

Who popularized the view that there are no moral standards?

Friedrich Nietzsche

72

We are selfish creatures whose moral conduct is a form of_____

insurance

73

What is the sophist view?

nature is amoral

74

division of labor

1. stoic view is contrasted
2. Plato's more utilitarian picture

75

benefits of specialization

doing what one does best

76

City of pigs

Athens was a commercial center filled with novelties; oriental spices were rare in medieval Europe; opening the new world added vanilla and chocolate to the diet

77

myth of the metals

three class structure

78

Thomas Hobbes

1.had a deep hostility to democracy,
2.equality is natural, hierarchy is conventional,
3.obedience is required for the sake of peace,
4. platos cosmology was shared by Aristotle and other classical writers,
5. it subsequently reinforced christian ideas

79

allegory of the cave

desired reluctance of the enlightened to return to the world of illusion

80

Hermias

tyrant of lesbos: former slave of great ability, Aristotle's marriage to Hermias's niece, Aristotle summoned to Pella to tutor alexander

81

empirical

experience-based, practical (practiced by Aristotle)

82

Lyceum

founded in 335, Athenian revolts against Philip, destruction of Thebes, Demosthenes, xenocrates took over the academy, Aristotle's empirical investigations, 158 Greek constitutions

83

manual albor

menial work

84

Who has royal rule over children and constitutional rule over wies

fathers

85

Who said natural law and divine law reinforce each other?

Roman Catholic Church

86

what are the four causes?

material(matter), formal (form), efficient(how something is effected, produced, originated
0, and final (the goal or purpose)

87

What is a political animal?

man, what makes him fully human is the city-state

88

what banished teleology?

scientific revolution

89

What does nature exhibit?

hierarchy: highest things aim at the highest good

90

Knowledge for the sake of action

prudence

91

What is master science?

politics

92

what is the highest goal of social life?

polis

93

master only over slaves

despotes

94

vita activa

active life

95

manumission

antebellum slavery

96

who lives a life of viva contemplative?

the philosopher (contemplation)

97

what is the aim of economic activity?

to create public-spirited citizens

98

what is combined view of 1. value is derived from the effort of the producers, and 2. value is measured by the desires of the purchasers?

price measures scarcity relative to demand

99

what is the modern notion of citizenship?

that it is an entitlement

100

idea of natural value was the inspiration for what?

medieval usury laws

101

who was a resident alien?

Aristotle

102

what was the ideal aristocracy?

hereditary ruling elite

103

what was the critique of hereditary ruling elite?

genetic transmission cannot be relied on

104

aristocracy

habit of becoming oligarchies, sexpartite distinction

105

What are the three virtuous forms of govt?

kingship, aristocracy, and politeia

106

What are the three corrupt forms of govt?

tyranny, oligarchy, and democracy

107

What is Ochlocracy

mob rule

108

What is demos

the poor many

109

What is the most democratic mode of choice?

lottery

110

What is politeia?

a happy medium between aristocracy and democracy

111

What is stasis?

stalemate

112

What are the two parts of theory of revolution?

stasis and bloody civil war

113

What are the two conceptions of justice?

1. democratic: Aristotle had no sympathy for economic equality,
2. oligarchic: monopolization of power and wealth

114

What was Aristotle's advice to tyrants?

1. keep opponents divided,
2. rule moderately and virtuously,
3. do not affront family pride ad honor,

115

What is the theory of a mixed constitution?

a. empirically-minded theorizing,
b. polybius,
c. British politics,
d. american checks and balances,
e. Aristotle matched political power with economic interest

116

What was Aristotle's ideal state?

a. size- a face-to-face community
b. common tables

117

Polybius

intellectual successors, mixed republican constitution, his life, exile in rome

118

equites

roman calvary

119

What is cursus homorum?

the course of offices, beginning with military service, hen by minimum age: qaestor, aedile, praetor, and finally consul

120

What is the classical view of constitutional change?

change is decay

121

Who believed that the founding moment is decisive?

George Wahsington

122

What are the motors of political change?

rise by talent vs. by hereditary, degeneration for aristocracies into oligarchies, oligarchy to democracy to dictatorship

123

What is the most common cycle of political change?

oligarchy to democracy to dictatorship

124

What is freedom under the law?

libertas

125

What sustained the rule of law?

self-discipline

126

what was freedom?

freedom from personal oppression

127

What is censor morum?

no sharp line dividing private from public realm

128

cursus honorum

quaestor and praetor

129

What is senatus consulta?

advisory judgments rather than legislative or judicial power

130

What are the three orders of citizens?

a. senators or patricians
1. forced to concede and ius honorum to the plebeians
b. populous:five classes
1. censors all coated citizens to the 35 tribes
2. tribes were further subdivided into ten centuries by financial standing and age

131

sien suffragio

without vote

132

Edict of Caracalla in 212 AD

the motive was to widen the tax base, women's property rights, family politics: marriage, divorce and adoption

133

patri potestas

absolute patriarchal power

134

law of nature

stoic idea, adopted by the church

135

Manichean hearer

no unified authoritative source of christian belief, repression of ideas, mani- problem of evil

136

What are the two central Christian doctrines?

incarnation and the resurrection of the body

137

What did Augustine learn from the Neoplatoists?

shadow of the true world, evil is privation

138

What are the two claims?

1. no pagans state practices Ciceronian sense,
2. even a Christian state falls short

139

plotinus

evil as privation

140

what is pride?

Thomas Hobbes insight

141

what is approval

non-manichaean and non-platonic conclusion

142

City of God

those whom god by his grace has admitted

143

what was the condemnation of the Donatists?

1. exlusivism and forcible conversions, 2. sore trial to Augustine's spirit, 3. circumcellions, 4. sacrament is efficacious, 5. character of political leaders

144

What is the earthly city?

defined by exclusion

145

What is libido dominandi?

lust to rule

146

What are the two purposes of punishment?

its threat gives a motive to behave better, punishment may reform the criminal

147

What are the arguments against acapital punishment?

1. barbarity of rome executions
a. torture: to put to the question
b. privilege of a citizen
2. judge's task
a. lack of certainty
3. innocence
4. judges conscience

148

What is just war?

modernity rejects the state's right to punish other states, self-defense is legitimate casus belli, preemptive attacks, question of collective guilt

149

what does thomas hobbes believe breaks the vicious cycle?

government

150

who likened a well-ordered absolute monarcy to a silent graveyard?

Jean-Jaques Rousseau

151

magna latrociinia

large bands of robbers, cf bastiat's legal plunder

152

Does the state counteract of cure sin?

only counteracts it

153

who created a rebirthof distinctly different political thinking?

John of Salisbury

154

Where do the roots of modern representative government lie?

in medieval systems of legal administrations of legal administration and military recruitment

155

What had a prehistory in older forms of tribal organization?

feudalism

156

What government evolved from a king and council system?

Britain parliamentary government

157

who was emperor of the romans, karl or carol the great in 800?

Charlamagne

158

who were papal interdicts?

john and elizabeth

159

What is tyrannicide?

1. classical roman view,
2. spheres of authority,
3. plot to kill Hitler
4. private individuals were not to make that judgment
5. Locke broke with this tradition

160

corpus juris civilis

ruler's will as autocrat

161

rise of islam

Crusades, Spanish reconquista, ottoman empire, instability of the successor states that emerged from the ottoman ruins

162

peoples of the book

the protected dhimmi stats required payment of the jizya

163

millet system

ottoman system under which Muslims were governed by Shari'a, Christians under canon law, and Jews under Halakah law

164

who presaged Robert Michel's' theory of the circulation of elites?

Iibn Khaldun

165

Pope Gelasius I

the last western emperor had abdicate 1 years earlier, gelasius' letter tot he eastern emperor anastasius, 494

166

simony

after Simon of the bible. a form of rent-seeking

167

papal election only by

college of cardinals

168

What happened at Canossa?

confrontation, 1077 Henry stood barefoot in the snow as a penitent for three days in the dead of winter in form the castle of Matilda of Tuscany, where Gregory was stayng

169

legibus absolutus

with sovereign immunity and is exempted from the law he gives, Congress follows this practice contrary to federalist no 57

170

what is the literary style of the Summa Theologiae?

Aquinas's views set out as answers to questions, later rejection of the scholastic style, riskiness of Aquinas's ideas

171

Dominican order

canis domini, order of preachers, preachers of crusades, linguistic studies

172

Frederick II vs____

Innocent IV

173

to which pope did king john appeal to retract the magna carta?

Innocent III

174

apatheia

no place for grace

175

eternal law of reason

principle of practical reason in the lawgiver

176

natural alw

rational for men
analogical for animals
simple and universal precepts
golden rule
role of casuistry

177

What are the prereques for just war?

1. it mus be official
2. just cause: self-defense-
pre-emptive strike
recovering unjustly seized territory
3. right intentions

178

ratione peccati

intervention when grave moral issues are raised

179

speculum principum

mirror of princes

180

deposition of tyrants

1. removal must be an act of the community
a. john lockes appeal to heaven
2. question of who may start the process
3. superiority of the body that could dismiss the sovereign, which led to the:
a. conciliar movement within the church
b. revival of republic theory in Italian city-states
c. rise of modern representative democracy

181

Conciliar movement

church reform
habsburgs abandoned the attempt to unify Italy
subsequent attempts
vision of a new roman empire died

182

the resignation of celestine V contributed to what?

the defeat of the papacy

183

Who wrote a play that showed the church and the pope in a bad light?

Dante

184

tutelary role of government

a positive role for the government in dantes play

185

what is an efficient cause of government?

popular consent

186

unity of will

de regimine civitatis

187

Who was skeptic that the church is a corpus mysticum?

William of ockham

188

What is Bartolus of Sassoferrato known for?

legal commentaries
conflicted laws
true sovereign
heirs of the populus romanus

189

Christine de pizan

widowed at 24, feminist manifestos,

190

What is the formula of the mirror of princes>

virtue and wisdom, roman example (Valerius Maximus), cardinal virtues, Machiavelli's more disconcerting morals

191

What is the highest good?

peace

192

what legitimizes government but does not limit it?

popular consent

193

What do absolute princes govern the willing in?

general interest

194

What are the dangers of flattery?

1. need to choose advisers wisely
2. problem of venality, what Frederic Bastiat called legal plunder
3. more's acquaintance with Plato's seventh letter

195

What encourages work?

law

196

what are seed-beds of crime?

idle occupations

197

the century of continuous warfare denunciated what?

marital alliances

198

predatory wars

monarchs whorob their subjects wage predatory wars, critique of the ills that beset england

199

Montiagne

his essays are assays of the self. he invent the form, an ancestor of the blog. his was the first modern autobiography.

200

Great Schism

1. political hostility to the papacy
2. confessional divide and national churches
3. political alliances made by the papacy
4. readiness of secular authorities to take control over religious life

201

Henry VIII

Catherine of aragon, piety, Charles v holy roman emperor and king of Spain, pope a virtual prisoner after the sack of Rome 1527, started church of England to get out or Romes thumb, two swords in the hands of one person

202

Charles V

holy roman emperor and king of spain

203

the dissolution of the monasteries was due to what?

princely ambitions

204

Diet of Speyer

1529 protest against decrees of charles v

205

sola scriptura

1. importance of the church as a corporation was undermined
2. john Locke's letter concerning toleration, 1698
a. nature of the church's contract with the state
b. nature of toleration
c. dissent

206

Martin Luther

followed saint Paul-salvation depends on God's grace and nothing else

207

antinomian enthusiasm

spirit-filled lawlessness

208

95 thesis

1. salvation by grace alone,
2. sale of indulgences- morally dubious in the same was as sate lotteries,
3. reformation day, oct 31 1517,
4. professor of theology

209

Gutenberg Revolution

reformation

210

translation into the vernacular

john wycliff

211

address to the christian nobility of Germany`

1. rejection of the sacrament of ordination
2. baptism gives us a relationship to Christ and a duty to help others come to him
3. Augustine's view

212

What are the papacy's three lines of defense

1. priesthood of all believers- division of labor is not a division of authority
2. every man is to read the Bible to himself
3. summoning the church council

213

on secular authority

Luther expressly political work, premise- nearly everyone is mistaken about obedience, secular authority is needed, conundrum concerning the secular sword, further arguments, compelling belief, christian prince, Luther's role in German politics

214

what were the problems of Luther's doctrine of non-resistance?

1. intentions of Charles v
2. john of Saxony
3. Luther's lack of an institutional forum for deposing a tyrant
a. effect of giving away the spirituals word
b. contempt for the traditions of natural and canon law

215

what is a constitutionalist position?

1. resemblance to Locke's later view
2. claim that positive law required princes to resist injustice
3. difficulty of reconciling absolute authority with constitutional limitations
4. medieval mind had resources for dealing with it

216

theory of resistance

ruler who uses unjust force abdicates his office,, constitutionalist claim
Lockean difficulty
who is entitled to speak for the people

217

institutes of the christian religion

reluctance to open the door to popular uprisings, first obligation of civil government is to foster and protect worship, Christians are pilgrims

218

classical republican idea

no separation of church and state
inferior magistrates

219

ulrich zwingli

zurich
iconoclasm
downfall

220

anabaptists

turn to paciism after early violence

221

schleitheim articles

1. separation from the worl
a. adult baptism made a capital offense
2. michael sattler
b. radical pacifism

222

balthasar hubmaier

quietism