Flashcards in Test 1 Deck (222):
Who was the chronicler of the Persian wars?
"father of lies", "father of history"
who was accused of being a philobarbarian?
What was a prototype of a modern nation-state?
Persia was the prototype
civis sine suffragio
citizen without vote (Jewish residents of tarsus, a center of learning here the apostle Paul was born, were granted roman citizenship)
equal rights in an assembly
were adopted to counteract a restrictive system of recruitment, but with only partials success
1. private aspect:freedom from the political sphere
2. liberal aspect:occupational, educational, religious freedom
3. democratic aspect:accountability
4. contrast with people's democracies, which provide no opportunity to canvass alternatives
Who wrote essays in the history of ideas provides a model of this enterprise
What is the essence of a republic?
What is Ecclesia?
What is another word for demes?
why did the Greek states fail?
The war showed the strengths and weaknesses of democracy, 1. parochial attitudes, 2. rivalry overcame fear of non-Greek powers, 3. discovery of the federal state:lykian league
started the process of increasingly radical democracy
cabinet, led by the president of the day (a position Socrates held at a critical moment in the trial of the generals), managing committee of the boule for a month
for what city did the Athenians demand the surrender of?
What is another example of direct democracy?
Who believed that slavery was natural?
Plato and Aristotle
based on the biblical concept of a covenant
author of the Virginia declaration of rights, knew that faith is a matter of reason and conviction and cannot be coerced, first amendment later est the freedom of religion for the worlds first constitutional republic
democracy or the few, that slid toward an imperial dictatorship (what the greeks called tyranny)
the archbishop of milan, blocked his access to the cathedral and compelled him to do public penance
presented it to the king by stephen langton, gave many rights that were previously not written down
a monk and university professor, posted his 95 theses oat wittenberg
a member of parliament, underwent an evangelical conversion in 1785 while on a lengthy tour of Europe in 1784-85
widened political participation beyond the aristocracy opening it to 10-15% of the population, but the experiment was unsustainable
seen as a transition from the dark ages to the renaissance, has been depicted as a benighted sleep before the renaissance
reflects a similar impulse to that of the french revolutionaries
Who was a cradle Calvinist who spent time in the leyden coffee houses, had the genius to be able to make these ideas acceptable to an Anglican and royalist community?
introduced the magna charta to the king, archbishop of canterbury. murdered.
What represents individuality more, the cube or the cathedral?
the cathedral because every part is different, just like people. the cube, which is meant to celebrate individualism, is the same everywhere, each piece is the same.
Alexis de toqueville
sought to understand what made the difference between the two revolutions, singled out the Americans faith in a divine moral
what were Zeus's gifts?
two urns or casks
What is an expression of fatalism?
zeus's golden scales
what crushes victims and intoxicates victors
pitilessness of force
what is retribution?
the soul of the epic,
what is the greatest calamity?
that the human race can experience the destruction of a city
What is consent of the governed?
more far reaching than the modern social contract,
presumption of consent
not a rebuttable
what is mimetic desire?
imitative desire in which what is desirable is modeled by someone else as something good and worthwhile to have
the bible reveals the truth about the things from the foundation of the world, that founding murders lie at the beginning of cultures, whether it is the death of Abel or remus
a poison but also perhaps a medicine
only one man is free. the type of rule in persia
a relatively new term, awakened proletarian masses to make the revolution that ushers in the socialist millennium, contemptuously in belittling the low tastes of the uncultivated masses, good naturedly when we welcome the huddled masses yearning to be fee, or simply a lot of people
The name given to polis formation by the Greeks themselves was synoikismos, literally a “gathering together.” Synoikismos could take one or both of two forms—it could be a physical concentration of the population in a single city or an act of purely political unification that allowed the population to continue living in a dispersed way.
were free men, but without land or other resources. They were a class of farmers that emerged in areas where the status of individual property was in effect.
Who was Max Weber
statesman that focuses too narrowly on ultimate consequences may damage goals and discredit them because responsibility for consequences is lacking,
Who was Henry Kissinger?
scholars vs. statesmen, policymaker has responsibility for the worst that could happen, world of the contingent
being able to secure ones rights in court
circulation of the elites
it will ensure that incompetent elites are replaced by more competent elites
who said that freedom for the citizens of ancient republics like Sparta or Athens was a matter of having a share of the sovereign authority; it was essentially public and political. it cam at a high price; not only did such societies depend on the existence of slaves in order to free the citizens to o their citizen duties, but they were societies of mutual surveillance?
basically believe that since human annture is the same at all times in all places, we can draw moral about what is likely to happen to us from what our predecessors have thought and done
is a Greek theological, philosophical, and scientific term usually translated into English as "nature".
all in righteousness
in law, the concept of law in ancient Greek philosophy. The problems of political authority and the rights and obligations of citizens were a major concern in the thought of the leading Greek Sophists of the late 5th and early 4th centuries bc. They distinguished between nature (physis) and convention (nomos), putting laws in the latter category. Law generally was thought to be a human invention arrived at by consensus for the purpose of restricting natural freedoms for the sake of expediency and self-interest. This view of law as arbitrary and coercive was not conducive to social stability, however, and thus was amended by Plato and other philosophers, who asserted that nomos was, or at least could be, based upon a process of reasoning whereby immutable standards of moral conduct could be discovered, which could then be expressed in specific laws. The dichotomy between the negative and positive views of law was never actually resolved.
what is timocracy?
honor supercedes wisdom
What does timocracy degenerate to?
What was Callicles error?
self-control is required for success in even wicked prljects
what did Callicles believe?
the good life consists of gratifying our impulses
What are two interpretations of Callicles views of life?
1. the good life is immoral or amoral
2. natural justice is transgressive: whatever one can get away with
what impels people to seek political power?
Who popularized the view that there are no moral standards?
We are selfish creatures whose moral conduct is a form of_____
What is the sophist view?
nature is amoral
division of labor
1. stoic view is contrasted
2. Plato's more utilitarian picture
benefits of specialization
doing what one does best
City of pigs
Athens was a commercial center filled with novelties; oriental spices were rare in medieval Europe; opening the new world added vanilla and chocolate to the diet
myth of the metals
three class structure
1.had a deep hostility to democracy,
2.equality is natural, hierarchy is conventional,
3.obedience is required for the sake of peace,
4. platos cosmology was shared by Aristotle and other classical writers,
5. it subsequently reinforced christian ideas
allegory of the cave
desired reluctance of the enlightened to return to the world of illusion
tyrant of lesbos: former slave of great ability, Aristotle's marriage to Hermias's niece, Aristotle summoned to Pella to tutor alexander
experience-based, practical (practiced by Aristotle)
founded in 335, Athenian revolts against Philip, destruction of Thebes, Demosthenes, xenocrates took over the academy, Aristotle's empirical investigations, 158 Greek constitutions
Who has royal rule over children and constitutional rule over wies
Who said natural law and divine law reinforce each other?
Roman Catholic Church
what are the four causes?
material(matter), formal (form), efficient(how something is effected, produced, originated
0, and final (the goal or purpose)
What is a political animal?
man, what makes him fully human is the city-state
what banished teleology?
What does nature exhibit?
hierarchy: highest things aim at the highest good
Knowledge for the sake of action
What is master science?
what is the highest goal of social life?
master only over slaves
who lives a life of viva contemplative?
the philosopher (contemplation)
what is the aim of economic activity?
to create public-spirited citizens
what is combined view of 1. value is derived from the effort of the producers, and 2. value is measured by the desires of the purchasers?
price measures scarcity relative to demand
what is the modern notion of citizenship?
that it is an entitlement
idea of natural value was the inspiration for what?
medieval usury laws
who was a resident alien?
what was the ideal aristocracy?
hereditary ruling elite
what was the critique of hereditary ruling elite?
genetic transmission cannot be relied on
habit of becoming oligarchies, sexpartite distinction
What are the three virtuous forms of govt?
kingship, aristocracy, and politeia
What are the three corrupt forms of govt?
tyranny, oligarchy, and democracy
What is Ochlocracy
What is demos
the poor many
What is the most democratic mode of choice?
What is politeia?
a happy medium between aristocracy and democracy
What is stasis?
What are the two parts of theory of revolution?
stasis and bloody civil war
What are the two conceptions of justice?
1. democratic: Aristotle had no sympathy for economic equality,
2. oligarchic: monopolization of power and wealth
What was Aristotle's advice to tyrants?
1. keep opponents divided,
2. rule moderately and virtuously,
3. do not affront family pride ad honor,
What is the theory of a mixed constitution?
a. empirically-minded theorizing,
c. British politics,
d. american checks and balances,
e. Aristotle matched political power with economic interest
What was Aristotle's ideal state?
a. size- a face-to-face community
b. common tables
intellectual successors, mixed republican constitution, his life, exile in rome
What is cursus homorum?
the course of offices, beginning with military service, hen by minimum age: qaestor, aedile, praetor, and finally consul
What is the classical view of constitutional change?
change is decay
Who believed that the founding moment is decisive?
What are the motors of political change?
rise by talent vs. by hereditary, degeneration for aristocracies into oligarchies, oligarchy to democracy to dictatorship
What is the most common cycle of political change?
oligarchy to democracy to dictatorship
What is freedom under the law?
What sustained the rule of law?
what was freedom?
freedom from personal oppression
What is censor morum?
no sharp line dividing private from public realm
quaestor and praetor
What is senatus consulta?
advisory judgments rather than legislative or judicial power
What are the three orders of citizens?
a. senators or patricians
1. forced to concede and ius honorum to the plebeians
b. populous:five classes
1. censors all coated citizens to the 35 tribes
2. tribes were further subdivided into ten centuries by financial standing and age
Edict of Caracalla in 212 AD
the motive was to widen the tax base, women's property rights, family politics: marriage, divorce and adoption
absolute patriarchal power
law of nature
stoic idea, adopted by the church
no unified authoritative source of christian belief, repression of ideas, mani- problem of evil
What are the two central Christian doctrines?
incarnation and the resurrection of the body
What did Augustine learn from the Neoplatoists?
shadow of the true world, evil is privation
What are the two claims?
1. no pagans state practices Ciceronian sense,
2. even a Christian state falls short
evil as privation
what is pride?
Thomas Hobbes insight
what is approval
non-manichaean and non-platonic conclusion
City of God
those whom god by his grace has admitted
what was the condemnation of the Donatists?
1. exlusivism and forcible conversions, 2. sore trial to Augustine's spirit, 3. circumcellions, 4. sacrament is efficacious, 5. character of political leaders
What is the earthly city?
defined by exclusion
What is libido dominandi?
lust to rule
What are the two purposes of punishment?
its threat gives a motive to behave better, punishment may reform the criminal
What are the arguments against acapital punishment?
1. barbarity of rome executions
a. torture: to put to the question
b. privilege of a citizen
2. judge's task
a. lack of certainty
4. judges conscience
What is just war?
modernity rejects the state's right to punish other states, self-defense is legitimate casus belli, preemptive attacks, question of collective guilt
what does thomas hobbes believe breaks the vicious cycle?
who likened a well-ordered absolute monarcy to a silent graveyard?
large bands of robbers, cf bastiat's legal plunder
Does the state counteract of cure sin?
only counteracts it
who created a rebirthof distinctly different political thinking?
John of Salisbury
Where do the roots of modern representative government lie?
in medieval systems of legal administrations of legal administration and military recruitment
What had a prehistory in older forms of tribal organization?
What government evolved from a king and council system?
Britain parliamentary government
who was emperor of the romans, karl or carol the great in 800?
who were papal interdicts?
john and elizabeth
What is tyrannicide?
1. classical roman view,
2. spheres of authority,
3. plot to kill Hitler
4. private individuals were not to make that judgment
5. Locke broke with this tradition
corpus juris civilis
ruler's will as autocrat
rise of islam
Crusades, Spanish reconquista, ottoman empire, instability of the successor states that emerged from the ottoman ruins
peoples of the book
the protected dhimmi stats required payment of the jizya
ottoman system under which Muslims were governed by Shari'a, Christians under canon law, and Jews under Halakah law
who presaged Robert Michel's' theory of the circulation of elites?
Pope Gelasius I
the last western emperor had abdicate 1 years earlier, gelasius' letter tot he eastern emperor anastasius, 494
after Simon of the bible. a form of rent-seeking
papal election only by
college of cardinals
What happened at Canossa?
confrontation, 1077 Henry stood barefoot in the snow as a penitent for three days in the dead of winter in form the castle of Matilda of Tuscany, where Gregory was stayng
with sovereign immunity and is exempted from the law he gives, Congress follows this practice contrary to federalist no 57
what is the literary style of the Summa Theologiae?
Aquinas's views set out as answers to questions, later rejection of the scholastic style, riskiness of Aquinas's ideas
canis domini, order of preachers, preachers of crusades, linguistic studies
Frederick II vs____
to which pope did king john appeal to retract the magna carta?
no place for grace
eternal law of reason
principle of practical reason in the lawgiver
rational for men
analogical for animals
simple and universal precepts
role of casuistry
What are the prereques for just war?
1. it mus be official
2. just cause: self-defense-
recovering unjustly seized territory
3. right intentions
intervention when grave moral issues are raised
mirror of princes
deposition of tyrants
1. removal must be an act of the community
a. john lockes appeal to heaven
2. question of who may start the process
3. superiority of the body that could dismiss the sovereign, which led to the:
a. conciliar movement within the church
b. revival of republic theory in Italian city-states
c. rise of modern representative democracy
habsburgs abandoned the attempt to unify Italy
vision of a new roman empire died
the resignation of celestine V contributed to what?
the defeat of the papacy
Who wrote a play that showed the church and the pope in a bad light?
tutelary role of government
a positive role for the government in dantes play
what is an efficient cause of government?
unity of will
de regimine civitatis
Who was skeptic that the church is a corpus mysticum?
William of ockham
What is Bartolus of Sassoferrato known for?
heirs of the populus romanus
Christine de pizan
widowed at 24, feminist manifestos,
What is the formula of the mirror of princes>
virtue and wisdom, roman example (Valerius Maximus), cardinal virtues, Machiavelli's more disconcerting morals
What is the highest good?
what legitimizes government but does not limit it?
What do absolute princes govern the willing in?
What are the dangers of flattery?
1. need to choose advisers wisely
2. problem of venality, what Frederic Bastiat called legal plunder
3. more's acquaintance with Plato's seventh letter
What encourages work?
what are seed-beds of crime?
the century of continuous warfare denunciated what?
monarchs whorob their subjects wage predatory wars, critique of the ills that beset england
his essays are assays of the self. he invent the form, an ancestor of the blog. his was the first modern autobiography.
1. political hostility to the papacy
2. confessional divide and national churches
3. political alliances made by the papacy
4. readiness of secular authorities to take control over religious life
Catherine of aragon, piety, Charles v holy roman emperor and king of Spain, pope a virtual prisoner after the sack of Rome 1527, started church of England to get out or Romes thumb, two swords in the hands of one person
holy roman emperor and king of spain
the dissolution of the monasteries was due to what?
Diet of Speyer
1529 protest against decrees of charles v
1. importance of the church as a corporation was undermined
2. john Locke's letter concerning toleration, 1698
a. nature of the church's contract with the state
b. nature of toleration
followed saint Paul-salvation depends on God's grace and nothing else
1. salvation by grace alone,
2. sale of indulgences- morally dubious in the same was as sate lotteries,
3. reformation day, oct 31 1517,
4. professor of theology
translation into the vernacular
address to the christian nobility of Germany`
1. rejection of the sacrament of ordination
2. baptism gives us a relationship to Christ and a duty to help others come to him
3. Augustine's view
What are the papacy's three lines of defense
1. priesthood of all believers- division of labor is not a division of authority
2. every man is to read the Bible to himself
3. summoning the church council
on secular authority
Luther expressly political work, premise- nearly everyone is mistaken about obedience, secular authority is needed, conundrum concerning the secular sword, further arguments, compelling belief, christian prince, Luther's role in German politics
what were the problems of Luther's doctrine of non-resistance?
1. intentions of Charles v
2. john of Saxony
3. Luther's lack of an institutional forum for deposing a tyrant
a. effect of giving away the spirituals word
b. contempt for the traditions of natural and canon law
what is a constitutionalist position?
1. resemblance to Locke's later view
2. claim that positive law required princes to resist injustice
3. difficulty of reconciling absolute authority with constitutional limitations
4. medieval mind had resources for dealing with it
theory of resistance
ruler who uses unjust force abdicates his office,, constitutionalist claim
who is entitled to speak for the people
institutes of the christian religion
reluctance to open the door to popular uprisings, first obligation of civil government is to foster and protect worship, Christians are pilgrims
classical republican idea
no separation of church and state
turn to paciism after early violence
1. separation from the worl
a. adult baptism made a capital offense
2. michael sattler
b. radical pacifism