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Flashcards in Test 1 Deck (50):
1

sound wave is made up of

compressions/rarefactions; increased/decreased air pressure

2

SPL refers to: _____; unit of measure is _____

Sound pressure level; dB

3

threshold of hearing is:

zero dB SPL

4

Emile Berliner

invented gramophone

5

A440 means:

frequency of A above middle C

6

Life cycle of sound

sound that reaches ear first; waveform; direct/early reflection/reverberant

7

describe timbre

tone or color of sound

8

when did AM radio stations begin broadcasting

1918, RCA formed 1919

9

why did it take till mid 1920's for electrical recording to become standard

no microphones

10

who invented condenser microphone

EC Wente

11

equal loudness principle

illustrates sensitivity of human hearing in relation to frequency

12

what is 3rd harmonic of note played at 250Hz

750Hz

13

speed of sound

1130 ft/sec

14

where does sound become electricity in ear

cochlea

15

what is a fundamental

lowest frequency in a complex tone

16

significant events in 1806/1857/1877

Thomas Young/Tuning Fork
Leon Scott/phonautograph
Edison/phonograph

17

how many octaves are on piano w/ 88 keys? normal human hearing?

7 + minor 3rd; 10

18

TTS; cause of

Temporary Threshold Shift; prolonged extremely loud exposure

19

PTS

Permanent threshold shift; ringing signaling possible permanent threshold shift

20

diff in critical and analytical listening

critical: characteristics analytical: feeling and interpretation

21

sound wave reactions out of phsae

180* cancel; constructive will increase; destructive will decrease

22

diff between low and highs signal to noise ratio

low s/n = higher noise level around signal
high s/n = little or no noise around signal

23

what is masking

loud sounds drown out soft ones, low sounds drown out high ones

24

what is pitch

human perception of frequency

25

what is volume

amplitude

26

in SPL what is threshold of pain

140 dB

27

in SPL what is average conversation

60 dB

28

in SPL how loud is a rock concert

120 dB

29

what 2 paths does sound take to brain

auditory center for interpretation then central nervous system

30

an octave above 440 hz is

880Hz

31

list the basic OSHA SPL levels for 2 4 and 8 hours

100 dB
95 dB
90 dB

32

what is the diff between inharmonic and enharmonic

inharmonic is overtones that are not exact multiples of fundamental
enharmonic are the same tones

33

what frequency is middle C on piano

262 Hz

34

how is loudness measured

SPL/dB

35

what is significance of 1890's

one off first commercial recording sessions

36

diff between cognitive and affective information

cognitive = mental process knowledge/reasoning
affective deals with emotions/feeling

37

7 basic parts of ear

...

38

dynamic range

diff in loudest/softest parts of sound

39

what was first device to successfully record sound

phonautograph

40

most sensitive band of frequencies in humans

2kHz - 5kHz

41

Edison's approach to cylinder recording was

vertical with gravity

42

berliners approach to disc recording was

lateral

43

who is father of recording industry

thomas edison

44

what is name of most famous music industry logo

his master's voice

45

2 most successful Victor Talking Machine Co products

Victrola, Victor phonograph

46

who first recorded vibrations from tuning fork and when

Thomas Young 1806

47

how did phonautograph fall short

only recorded, didn't play back

48

who invented telephone, when

graham bell, 1876

49

what did graphophone evolve into

gramophone

50

who was first artist to receive royalty

enrico caruso