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πŸ‡ΈπŸ‡³ Senegal
Capital city
Who is the colonizer
Independence date
Official language
Approximately how many people
Major rivers

Capital city is Dakar
Colonized by France
Independence date June 20, 1960
Official language is French
Major rivers are the Gambia and the Senegal


Colonial heritage

French establish trading post at the mouth of the Senegal river in 1638
1659 moved to St. Louis
1677 seize Goree from the Dutch

British set up along the Gambia river 1661 fort James
Where it was used as a trading post for slaves during the bed 19th century

France controls Goree outpost btwn two rivers
1889 French and British agree on the borders of Gambia and senegal


Why should we study Africa?

One – challenge stereotypes
2- globalization/trade
3-security- terrorism versus regular security - migrant crisis refugees economics and conflict
4-politics - regimes
-democratic transitions
-authoritarianism – stability
- colonial to independent rule


What is the difference between a head of state in a head of government

Head of government is the current elected leader
Head of state is like the queen


What is the difference between a unitary and a federal system

Unitary system is one level of Government ( most African countries are unitary)
Federal systems have more than two levels of government


What is the challenge of term limits in Africa

African presidents ignore term limits or change the Constitution just stay in power
Presidents have immunity from the law so don't want to leave some leave office and could be charged for crimes


What are the challenges of executive versus legislative power in Africa

The largest challenge is that presidents are there for a long time and there is less legislative power


What are some accountability mechanisms(constraints on executive legislative or judiciary authority

Government constraints- law constraints- immunity africa
voting constraints - cheating africa
Non political constraints - media - africa Government control


Week political opposition and party systems example

Senegal having 59-100 names on the ballot just too many parties


What are some of the European motives for colonization

Industrial revolution- source for Raw materials- markets for finished goods

European nationalism

Missionary activity

Military and naval bases

Places to dump unwanted excess populations

Social and economic opportunity

Humanitarian reasons
European racism/ she'll Darwinism and the white man's burden


Think of the graph of Africa's democratic trajectory or polity scale 1946-2012
Explain the trends at independence and what year it was
Explain the third wave democracy and he what year that was

Explain the authoritarian drift and what year that was

Independence era 1960- authoritarianism is common because of the idea of development in a hurry less opposition stronger state

Third wave democracy grew from poor economic growth from authoritarian states in the 80s
Cold War ended 1990 to mid 90s and countries introducing more democratic elements Africans wanted to say after the cold war suppression

Mid to thousands was the authoritarian drift
Increasing hybrid and decreasing democracies with a small number of actual democracy systems

Last five years hybrid system taking over because of changing economic climate with China investment


What is the population of Africa

It is the second largest continent by territory with 1.1 to 1 .2 billion people


Africa is 54 countries make up what percentage of the United Nations member states

28% with 54 out of 193 member states with the SADR not being a member yet


What is the most populous country in Africa?
Second and third

Nigeria with 170million+ people
Ethiopia is second with 98 million
Egypt is third with 90 million


Which five OPEC member states are African?

Angola, Algeria, Gabon, Libya, Nigeria


Give Crawford Youngs 2012 six phases of moods of postcolonial Evolution

1st optimism - 1950s to early 1960s
2nd pessimism- early 1960s into 1970s
3rd- optimism-1970s
4th- pessimism-1980s(Lost decade)
5th - optimism- early 90s (3rd democ wave)
6th- mixed- from mid-1990s


In 2000 the economist called Africa the hopeless continent from 2000 to 2013 what changed to bring Africa rising

- African leaders underwent some critical self assessment 1) from OAU (Coups and corruption) 2)NEPAD- New partnership for African development- responsible use of aid

- International community/donors- more partnership less structural adjustment

- commodity boom( Supercycle 2002-2008) - The price of everything went up and increased investment in Africa because of the demand from China and growing African investment

China!- rise of NTD (nontraditional donors) BRICS (Brazil Russia China south Africa India)

Global war on terror- USA military support for economic support trade off

Cell phones two aspects- important for global trade with African communication and development
Common Africans are able to communicate and it was life-changing

Overall reduced violent conflict after 2002 to 2003


What is GDP

Gross domestic product-values of goods and services produced in a country domestically


What is GDP growth

Annual increase in production by percentage


What is GDP per capita ($us) or PPP (purchasing power parity)

GDP \pop
How much productivity or relative income per person
PPP Converts GDP and how much a person can buy in their economy


What is the difference between FDI vs ODA vs remittances

FDI -foreign direct investment- private sector financial cash flow into the economy

ODA-official development assistance
1-grants- to fund development abroad
2- concessional lending- you can lend cash local market rates and long period of repayment

Remittances- when people work abroad sending money back to family or money coming from a brought into a country privately


What is the I FI

International Financial institutions such as World Bank and IMF


What is the difference between government deficits and government debt

Government deficits are in balanced budgets or annual debts that are pushed into the next year with expenses(interest)


Explain government borrowing

Everment can't tax enough so they borrow from citizens and international banks problem is that boring at one time and value of currency drops therefore debt crisis


Acemoglue and robinson article
What is the central argument of the article?

The main reasons Africa is poor:
-citizens have very bad interlocking economic and political incentives
-property rights are insecure and inefficiently organized
-markets do not function well
-States are weak and political Systems do not provide public goods
This is an institutional approach


Acemoglue and robinson article
In their review what were the two main causes for precolonial Africa as polities not to evolve in the ways that supported rapid economic growth?

1-centralized polities emerged later and less frequently and Africa then anywhere else
Example LeLe- no political centralization and lack of authority lead to poverty
Bushong- re-organize Asian of society and the division of lever bisects increased cultural productivity
Had political centralize Asian and even elections for leaders

2-when they did centralized they were highly absolutist and patrimonial polities which could not create the circumstances necessary for economic development
- absolutism and Patrimonialism results in an economic system designed to benefit those in power by creating wealth and power for the ruler at the expense of the society
Example - Ethiopia - Askum Kingdom and gult land system where gold landholders provide services for the emperor resulting in insecure property rights driven by the leaders political strategy- you die and land back to crown not your family


Acemoglue and robinson article
What to big external factors further interfered with African political evolution?

The slave trade and the resulting misteust of outsiders by Africans


In class discussion
Why is Africa poor? 9 reasons
Explain each

1-resource curse- countries with abundant natural resources do not have high GDP per capita

2-Poor infrastructure- built during colonial. Not to serve Africans and trade but to extract resources

3-violence/crime-instability scares away investors more prevalent in places where government has failed the people

4-corruption- internally and extra early linked
Ex. Exxon Oil and ruling elite of Equatorial Guinea
More likely that external investors will deal with corrupt regime's
Internal corruption happens with inefficiency of government leading to bribes

5-lack of accessible education- after independence it was a popular theme
-on paper there maybe universal education but on ground maybe missing teachers etc. access and quality

6-vulnerability to cheap and free imports from the west
Ex. Kenyan textile Industry screwed up by imported thrift store clothes from the west

7-diseases- climate and disease profile from geography

8-exploitation- structural two levels of analysis
Individual and institutional
-under development of Africa to make other countries rich
-slave trade effects - demographics(continent emptied of people), no trust, warfare, judicial system
-IMF world bank
-International global a system screws Africans

9- leadership policy- after independence what were the challenges to new leaders?


The Many Africa's book essay
Give a summary of the article

Africa size is often distorted with Western journalists misinterpreting misrepresenting The region with incomplete and in accurate data
Directive of chronic failure of Africa is a distortion


Differences between African and European states 4

Africa locked written languages

Patron client relationship local chiefs and subjects pay tribute to leader for protection

Political authority not over territory but over people

Kinship and lineage matters in the states

Temporal and spiritual authority


What were some factors that provoked the scramble for Africa

Industrial revolution the need for new markets resources for production workers etc.

Rivalries between European nations spilling into the colonies


What is the difference between indirect rule and direct rule and which colonial powers used which

InDirect rule used by the British capitalizing on the existence of legitimate local authorities as relays of colonial rule local rulers retain authority over subjects in exchange for loyalty towards the British

Direct rule French colonial empire split into two territories each with their own governor general
Direct agents of French colonial state who were not appointed and could be anyone even African
French wanted assimulation


What were some of the consequences of indirect rule

Tend to promote rise of customary rules in modern politics

Undermined existing modes of accountability by having some source of power outside of the community

Legal pluralism multiple or overlapping legal systems


Give time periods from the 1400s to the present and show international intervention as historical influence

Early 1400s– first official contact with China

Mid 1400s - 1600s -age of European sailing exploration and trade(Portuguese/Spanish)

1600s to 1700's-New kids on the block-Dutch, British, French

Mid 1500s to mid 1800s – Atlantic slave trade
1798 to 1871 Napoleon invaded Egypt to German unification the age of civilization and the three C's

1870s to World War II – scramble for Africa(Berlin conference 1884 to 1885)

World War I to 1950s-development, self government, self-determination

1956 to 1966 – African independence era-institutionalize Asian of the colonial project?


Briefly describe the following African empires
Mali & songhay

Kanem- Bornu (kanuri)


Mali songhay- Timbuktu A center of Islam a culture and scholarship 1450
Leading trade/education city until 1591 when captured by Morocco French did not capture the area until 1894

kanem Bornu
1380 – early 1800s when Fulani Jihad pushed from west but did not subjugate kanuri region
1893 Sudanese invasion then annexed by British to become ne Nigeria

Growing during 1400s, leaders converted to Christianity under Portuguese tutelage circa 1500


What are the characteristics of precolonial African polities

-various forms of organization from relatively centralize states and empires to lineage based systems, town/village acephalous societies, overlapping authority, etc.

-political communities generally have not tired too hard territorial borders: Power declined further from Center, individuals/families/villages often had option of exit

-larger political community is often Inc. various ethnic/cultural/language groups


What are the three C's and who was the first

David Livingstone
civilization to africa
commerce - slave trade and other things


Explain the details of the Berlin conference

-how old by Bismarck 1884 to 1885
-Germany wanted seat at the table because it had just become a country in 1871
Final scramble for Africa
Spheres of influence
Congo free trade
Requirements for effective occupation
Aligned European states with philanthropist ideals and the three C's

European states were worried about running into each other and want to avoid a war

Rules for carving of Africa not carving up Africa at this conference


What were the rules for carving up Africa

Had to send troops
Platta flag
Signed agreement with local Chiefs
Show authority over your area
Article 6 – the colonizers have to take care of the people


What were the two countries that were not under European political authority in the 1890s

Ethiopia and Liberia


Why was west Africa not settled by settlers?

Disease whites could not survive as well as their animals