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Flashcards in Test 1 Deck (106):
1

the study of living things

biology

2

living things

organisms

3

regions were particular organisms normally live

habitat

4

the study of plants

botany

5

the study of animals

zoology

6

the study of physical structure

human anatomy or physiology

7

two thirds of the food we eat comes directly from

plants

8

one third of the food we eat comes from

animals

9

most plants with flowers produce what

fruit

10

plants that live several years and develop a large amount of wood

woody plants

11

a plant with a single tall, woody stem capable of standing erect without support

tree

12

nonwoody plants are referred to as

herbaceous plants or herbs

13

what is a plant that can be either woody or herbaceous

vine

14

system in which the root grows straight down and remain larger than the secondary roots that branch off from it

taproot system

15

system in which the primary root remains small and many slender secondary roots grow from it in all directions

fibrous system

16

plants whose flowers produce seeds covered by fruit

angiosperms

17

one of the largest families of angiosperms

composite family

18

a cluster of many separate flowers

head

19

the flowers located in the center of the head

disk flowers

20

flowers arranged around the disk flowers

ray flowers

21

peanuts are located in what family

pea family

22

many of our vegetables come from the leves stems and plants of what family

mustard

23

members of the pea family are commonly referred to as

legumes

24

nitrogen that has been combined into special compounds of nitrogen and oxygen

nitrates

25

grows on the roots of legumes convert the nitrogen from air into ammonia and nitrates

nitrogen fixing bacteria

26

provide nitrates to the soil from decomposing plants and animals

nitrifying bacteria

27

the movement of nitrogen from the air into the soil and back into the air is called

nitrogen cycle

28

convert unused nitrates back into atmospheric nitrogen to complete the nitrogen cycle

denitrifying bacteria

29

a diverse family with some surprising members

lily family

30

the most familiar member of the cashew family

cashew tree

31

process whereby a plants chloroplasts capture the radiant energy of light and convert it into the chemical energy of food

photosynthesis

32

the seed of an angiosperm plant contains special structures called

cotyledons

33

flower parts arranged in groups of 4 or 5, leaves broad and flat with branching vein pattern, taproot system

dicots

34

flower parts arranged in groups of 3, long and narrow leaves ,parallel veins, fibrous root system

momocots

35

the most important group of flowering seed plant

grass

36

plant crop the includes wheat barley rye oats rice nd corn

cereal crop

37

livestock are raised on grass and

forage grasses

38

grasses used for covering lawns

turf grasses

39

trees with broad flat leaves

broadleaf trees

40

trees that lose their leaves in the fall and stay bare all winter

deciduous

41

trees that retain their leaves throughout the winter

evergreen

42

the bushy head of the tree

crown

43

the main stem of a tree

trunk

44

can be seen in early spring on the branches of oaks willows cottonwoods poplars birches

catkins

45

a group of structures designed to function together as a unit to perform a particular job for an organism

system

46

the part of the plant that is ordinarily underground anchoring the plant

root system

47

the part of the system that is usually found above
ground holding the leaves toward the sun

shoot system

48

a structure within a system that has a definite form and performs a definite function or functions for the system

organ

49

the green portion of the leaf

blade

50

the second major part of a typical leaf

petiole

51

leaves that lack petioles

sessile

52

small leaf like or scale like structures that helped to cover the leaf when it was developing

stipules

53

have one blade on every petiole

simple leaves

54

have more than one blade on every petiole

compound leaves

55

each blade on a compound leaf is called a

leaflet

56

when there are three or more leaves growing from each node

whorled

57

a cluster of leaves growing around the base of the plant are

rosette

58

living material that is constructed in such a way as to perform a particular task for the organs of an organism

tissue

59

most of the body or structure of the plant is what kind of tissue

structural tissue

60

protects and covers leaves

epidermal tissue

61

epidermal tissue of the shoot system is normally covered by a

cuticle

62

grows in place of the cuticle and forms the outer layer of bark

cork tissue

63

makes and stores food

parenchyma

64

composed of elongated tubular cells are the sap conducting tissues

vascular tissue

65

the sweet liquid found within the vascular tissue of the plant

sap

66

transports water and dissolved minerals upward from the roots to the leaves

xylem

67

transports food manufactured in the leaves downward

phloem

68

the growth and repair of plants

meristematic

69

internal and enables stems and roots to grow in diameter

cambium tissue

70

provides covering and protection for both the upper and lower leaf surfaces

epidermis

71

tiny openings in the lower epidermis

stomata

72

the loss of water vapor from leaves and stems

transpiration

73

expand and contract to open and close each stomata

guard cells

74

the middle portion of the leaf which forms the bulk of the leaf

mesophyll

75

runs through the mesophyll layers and contain the vascular tissue

veins

76

the basic structural unit of all living things

cell

77

surrounds the cell separates it from its environment and regulates what enters and leaves the cell

cell membrane

78

a spherical body often located near the center of the cell controls the cells activities

nucleus

79

serves as the fluid medium for the many molecules and organelles that make up the cell

cytoplasm

80

found around the outside of the cell membrane

cell wall

81

the pattern of the veins within leaves

venation

82

three types of venation

parallel pinnate palmate

83

the veins are usually parallel

parallel

84

the veins are usually branching out

pinnate

85

two or more major veins extending outward from one point like the fingers in a hand

palmate

86

a complex carbohydrate made up of long chains of glucose

cellulose

87

a substance that adds stiffening in the walls of the woody cells in trees and shrubs

lignin

88

tiny chemical "factories" that use light to manufacture food

chloroplast

89

the green pigment that gives plants their color and enables them to capture the energy of light

chlorophyll

90

the storage structures in cells

vacuoles

91

organisms that can make their own food

autotrophs

92

organisms that cant make their own food and must obtain it from other organisms

heterotrophs

93

stacks of special disks located within the chloroplast

thylakoids

94

carbon dioxide molecules from the air are combined to produce

glucose

95

enables the plants to "burn" sugars as fuel for energy

cellular respiration

96

glucose produced for transport to the rest of the plant

sucrose

97

a long chain like molecule consisting of thousands of glucose molecules linked together

starch

98

produces yellowish colors

xanthophyll

99

produces yellowish- orange colors

carotene

100

produces bright red blue and purple colors

anthocyanin

101

the leaves are cut from the stem by

abscission layer

102

weakens the cell walls of the abscission layer

cellulase

103

water within the guard cells produces a pressure clled

turgor pressure

104

when the guard cells are filled with water

turgid

105

occurs when transpiration takes place faster than the roots can absorb soil water

temporary wilting

106

special leaves of vines that have the unique function of holding the vine upward by coiling around some support structure

tendrils