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Flashcards in Test 1 Deck (63):
1

ethnology

ethnology is the study of how and why recent cultures differ and are similar

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ethnography

ethnography is a description of a society's customary behaviors and ideas

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ethnohistory

ethnohistory includes historical documents to study how a particular culture has changed over time

4

ethnoarchaeology

ethnoarchaeology is the ethnographic study of peoples for archaeological reasons, usually through the study of the material remains of a society

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applied anthropology

applied anthropology is the branch of anthropology that concerns itself with applying anthropological knowledge to achieve practical goals

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fieldwork

firsthand experience with the people being studied and the usual means by which anthropological information is obtained. this usually involves participant observation for an extended period of time, often

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participant observation

living among the people being studied- observing, questioning, and (when possible) taking part in the important events of the group. writing or otherwise recording notes on observation, questions asked and answered and things to check out later are parts of participant observation

8

context

how and why artifacts and other materials are related
- the relationships between and among artifacts, ecofacts, fossils and features

9

stratigraphy

(earliest, and most commonly used method of relative dating) the study of how different rock formations and fossils are laid down is successive layers or strata. older layers are generally deeper than more recent layers

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culture

the term culture refers to the customary ways that a particular population or society thinks and behaves
-the set of learned behaviors , beliefs, attitudes, values, and ideals that are characteristic of a particular society or other social group

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holism

holistic refers to an approach that studies many aspects of a multifaceted system

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alleles

one member of a pair of genes

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genes

chemical unit of heredity

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genotype

the total compliment of inherited traits or genes of an organism

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phenotype

the observable physical appearance of an organism, which may or may not reflect its genotype or total genetic constitution

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chromosome

paired rod-shaped structures within a cell nucleus containing genes that transmit traits from one generation to the next

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DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid, a long two stranded molecule in the genes that directs the makeup of an organsim according to the instructions in its genetic code

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speciation

the development of a new species

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sociobiology

the systematic study of the biological causes of human behavior. compare with behavioral ecology, evolutionary psychology, and dual inheritance theory

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genetic drift

the various random processes that affect gene frequencies in small, relatively isolated populations

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gene flow

the process by which genes pass from the gene pool of one population to that of another through mating and reproduction

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acclimatization (give examples)

impermanent physiological changes that people make when they encounter a new environment. (this is something developed during an individuals life time rather than at birth) examples: shivering when we are cold (short term) increased metabolic rate as a response to long term exposure to the cold (long term)

23

bergmann's rule

the rule that smaller-sized sub populations of a species inhabit the warmer parts of its geographic range and larger-sized subpopulations the cooler areas

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allen's rule

the rule that protruding body parts (particularly arms and legs) are relatively shorter in the cooler areas of a species' range than in the warmer areas

25

racism

the belief, without scientific basis, that some "races" are inferior to others

26

what is race, and why don't anthropologists recognize it for people?

physical traits that are adaptive vary clinally, which makes it meaningless to divide humans into discrete "racial" entities. "racial" classifications are mostly social categories that are presumed to have a biological basis. most biological anthropologists today agree that "race" is not a useful way of referring to human biological variation because human populations do not unambiguously fall into discrete groups defined by a particular set of biological traits

27

percussion flaking

a toolmaking technique in which one stone is struck with another to remove a flake

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oldowan tools

the earliest stone toolmaking tradition, named after the tools found in bed 1 at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, from about 2.5 million years ago. the stone artifacts include core tools and sharp-edged flakes made by striking one stone against another. flake tools predominate. Among the core tools, so-called choppers are common.

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prognathism

a physical feature that is sticking out or pushed forward, such as the faces in apes and some hominid species

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Saggital keel

an inverted v-shaped ridge running along the top of the skull in homo erectus

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occipital torus

a ridge of bone running horizontally across the back of the skull in apes and some hominids

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Acheulian tools

a stone toolmaking tradition dating from 1.5 million years ago. compared with the oldowan tradition acheulian assemblages have more large tools created according to standardized designs or shapes. One of the most characteristic and prevalent tools in the Acheulian tool kit is the so-called hand axe, which is a teardrop-shaped bifacially flaked tool with a thinned sharp tip. other large tools might have been cleavers and picks.

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Mousterian tools

compared with an acheulian assemblage the middle paleolithic (300,000-40,000 years ago) Mousterian has a smaller proportion of large core tools such as hand axes and cleavers and a bigger proportion of small flake tools such as scrapers. Flakes were often altered or "retouched" by striking small flakes or chips from one or more edges.

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pressure flaking

toolmaking technique whereby small flakes are struck off by pressing against the core with a bone, antler, or wooden tool

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maglemosians

the first mesolithic culture of the northern european plain, adapted to forest and waterside habitats and characterized by flint axes, microliths, and bone and antler equipment used in hunting and fishing

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ethnocentrism

the attitude that other societies customs and ideas can be judged in the context of ones own culture

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cultural relativism

the attitude that a societys customs and ideas should be viewed within the context of that societys problems and opportunities

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evolution

evolution is the change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations

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great chain of being

is a strict, religious hierarchical structure of all matter and life, believed to have been created by god

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carolus linnaus

formalized the modern system of naming organisms called binomial nomenclature

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uniformitarianism

the theory that changes in the earths crust during geological history have resulted from the action of continuous and uniform processes

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catastrophism

the theory that changes in the earths crust during geological history have resulted chiefly from sudden violent and unusual events

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charles darwin

embarked on a 5 year survey voyage around the world and his studies of specimens led him to formulate his theory of evolution and his views on the process of natural selection. his book of it "on the origin of species"

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adaptive

genetic changes that allow an organism to survive and reproduce in a specific environment

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non-adaptive

any change in allele frequency that does not by itself lead a population to become more adapted to its environment; the causes are mutation, genetic drift, and gene flow

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gregor mendel

mendel discovered the basic principles of heredity through experiments in his garden. mendels observations became the foundation of modern genetics and the study of heredity, and he is widely considered a pioneer in the field of genetics

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biological determinism

the idea that all human behavior is innate, determined by genes, brain size, or other biological attributes

48

flint knapping

is the making of flaked or chipped stone tools. and it requires the ability to control the way rocks break when they are stuck

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flake

a stone fragment removed from a core or from another flake by percussion or pressure, serving as a preform or as a tool or blade itself

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core

a stone tool with a cutting edge, as a hand ax, chopper, or scraper, formed by chipping away flakes from a core

51

archaic people

a time period in the new world during which food production first developed by these people

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cretaceous (mass extinction)

geological epoch 135 million to 65 million years ago, during which dinosaurs and other reptiles ceased to be the dominant land vertebrates, and mammals and birds began to become important.

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paleocene (proto primates)

beginning increase in environmental diversity
-continental drift
-flowering/fruiting plants
-primates originated from shrew-like mammals

-proto primates, omnivorous, mobil ankle and elbow joints

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eocene

prosimian split, first fossils
-omomyids, tarsier like
-adapids, lemure like
-forward facing eyes

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oligocene (anthropoids emerge)

-emergence of anthropoids
catopithecus- earliest
25 mya first new worlds monkeys (dolichocebus)
-very similar to early african
-appear abruptly
-propliopithecids
first old world monkey predecessor

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early miocene (hominoids emerge)

(24-16mya)
emergence of hominoids (apes) from catarrhines (monkey)
-drier, less forest

57

some of the problems with standardized intelligence testing

-assumed fixed, genetic intelligence
-north vs. south
-high income v. low income
-racial bias
-social environment

58

importance of bipedalism in early hominin evolution

because hominins are fully bipedal, we can carry objects without impairing our locomotor efficiency. carrying food or provisioning families might not have been the only benefit of freeing the hands; feeding itself may have been more efficient

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arboreal adaptation theory

suggests that the primates evolved from insectivores that took to the trees

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arboreal adaptation theory weakness

tree living is not a good explanation for many of the primate features because there are living mammals that dwell in trees but seem to do very well without primatelike characteristics

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arboreal adaptation theory potential alternatives

-trees favored vision over smell
-changes in the hand and foot
- the eyes of the early primates came to face forward not just because the snout got smaller
-a shift in diet

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rafting hypothesis

monkeys rafted over on vegetation (madagascar)

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physical and behavioral characteristics that make hominins unique

-expansion of brain
-more complex tool usage
-reduction in the size of the face, cheek teeth, and jaws
-changed diet to foods might have included roots, fruits and meat