Test #1 Flashcards Preview

Microbiology > Test #1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test #1 Deck (59):
1

Bacteria

Simple, single-celled organism
Prokaryotic-Genetic material not enclosed in a special nuclear membrane

2

Rodlike bacteria

Bacillus

3

Spherical or ovoid bacteria

Coccus

4

Corkscrew or curved bacteria

Spiral

5

Cell walls of bacteria made up of carbohydrate and protein complex

Peptidoglycan

6

How bacteria reproduce

Binary fission

7

How bacteria get nutrients

Some use organic chemicals (chemotrophic)
Some use photosynthesis
Some use inorganic substances

8

Archae

Consist of prokaryotic cells
Found in extreme environments
If they have cell walls, they lack peptidoglycan
Not known to cause disease in humans

9

Three main groups of archaea

Methanogens: produce methane as a waste product from respiration
Extreme halophiles: live in extremely salty environments like the Great Salt Lake and the Dead Sea
Extreme thermophiles: live in hot sulfurous water

10

Fungi

Eukaryotes
Unicellular or multicellular
Can’t carry out photosynthesis
cell walls composed mostly of chitin
Sexual or asexual

11

Yeast

Unicellular forms of fungi
Oval microorganisms larger than bacteria

12

Mycelia

Visible masses molds form which are composed of long filaments (hyphae) that branch and intertwine

13

How does fungi obtain nutrients

Absorbing solutions of organic material from their environment

14

What are slime molds

Organisms that have characteristics of both fungi and amebae

15

Protozoa

Unicellular eukaryotic
Move by pseudopods (false feet), flagella, or cilia
Nonparasitic or parasitic
Sexual or asexual

16

How do Protozoa get nutrients

Absorb or ingest organic compounds from their environment
Some, such as Euglena, are photosynthetic (use light as a source of energy and carbon dioxide as their chief source of carbon to produce sugars

17

Algae

Photosynthetic eukaryotes
Sexual and asexual
Usually unicellular

18

What are algae cell walls made of

Cellulose (a carbohydrate)

19

Viruses

Can only be seen with an electron microscope
Acellular
Contains a core made up of only one type of nuclei acid (dna or rna)
Core surrounded by a protein coat which is sometimes encased by a lipid membrane called an envelope

20

How does viruses reproduce

Only by using the cellular machinery of other organisms

21

Multicellular animal parasites

Not strictly microorganisms
Eukaryotes
Flatworms and rounds worms (helminths)
Parasites; many pathogenic
Chemotrophs
Asexual or sexual

22

Cell theory

The theory that all living things are composed of cells

23

Who discovered cells and when

Robert Hooke 1665

24

Who was the first to observe live microorganisms through a magnifying lenses and called them “animalcules”

Anton van Leeuwenhoek

25

The first to demonstrate that maggots didn’t generate spontaneously

Francesco Redi 1668

26

Disproves spontaneous generation with liquids for large organisms like flies (boiled broth)

John Needham

27

Said “life” comes from air

Lazzaro Spallanzani

28

The concept that living cells arise only from preexisting living cells

Biogenesis

29

Who disproved spontaneous generation by using a swan-neck flask

Lois Pasteur

30

Procedures that prevent contamination by unwanted microorganisms

Aseptic techniques

31

Golden Age of Microbiology

1857-1914

32

What happened to alcohol bc of bacteria in the air and what did they do to prevent it

Changed it to vinegar
Pasteurization- reduces spoilage and kill potentially harmful bacteria in milk and alcoholic drinks

33

Who came up with the “cure” for rabies by taking the antibodies from a rabbit

Pasteur

34

What’s Koch’s postulates?

A set of rules for determining which organism causes a disease
1. The organism (causative agents) must be isolated from sick individual
2. Organism must be in pure culture
3. A healthy individual is inoculated with the organism
4. Healthy individual must become sick with the same signs and symptoms
5. Isolate the same organism from healthy individual now sick with disease

35

What did Robert Koch do?

Proved bacteria actually caused disease in 1876 by studying anthrax (lethal bacterial infection) that was killing cows

36

Used phenol as a disinfectant

Joseph Lister

37

Started hand washing

Ignaz Semmelweis

38

Discovered the first vaccine

Edward Jenner (smallpox)

39

Discovered antibiotics

Alexander Fleming (penicillin)

40

Developed the first chemical drug that is antibacterial

Paul Ehrlich

41

Chemicals produced naturally by bacteria and fungi to act against other microorganisms

Antibiotics

42

The science of interaction between atoms and molecules

Chemistry

43

What part of an atom identifies it

Protons

44

Positively charged atom

Cation

45

Negatively charged atom

Anion

46

Describe a covalent bond

Share electrons
Strong

47

Describe ionic bonds

Accept or donate electrons
pH buffers
An attraction between ions of opposite charge that holds them together to form a stable molecule

48

Describe H bonds

Form between 2 polar covalent molecules
Not very strong but a lot of them
A hydrogen atom that is covalently bonded to one oxygen or nitrogen atom is attracted to another oxygen or nitrogen atom

49

DNA and proteins are held together by what?

H bonds

50

Organic molecules (molecules that must be present to make it organic)

C H O

51

Acid on pH scale

Below 6.8

52

Base on the pH scale

Above 7.2

53

Biological neutral on pHscale

6.8-7.2

54

pH scale

0-14

55

4 main classes (macromolecules) of organic chemistry

Carbohydrates
Proteins
Lupus
Nucleic acids

56

What’s made of/uses carbohydrates

Energy
Cell walls (like peptidoglycan)

57

What is made up of/uses proteins

Enzymes
Transport
Channels

58

What’s made up of/uses lipids

Membranes
Hormones

59

What is made up of nucleic acids

DNA
RNA