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Flashcards in TEST #1 Deck (85):
1

What population to sample from?

survey researchers want to control it because: they want to reduce the amount of uncertainty in their sample (so the sampling error is very small) and want to generalize their results to the relevant population.

2

Literary digest survey for presidential elections

For example, poll for political choice can only be valid if it is generalized for the entire population. It needs to have external validity. If researchers are interested in a large population if the sample is not representative doesn't matter how large it is, it still will be wrong.
For ex. Literary digest survey for presidential elections ( researchers conducted a huge poll, however only rich people could respond because only they had phones in 1930s)the poll predicted reppublican to win however won Rusvelt. This poll did not reflect the real situation bc only certain people were asked.

3

population of interest

It is essential that your survey shoud be in population of interest.

4

Convenience sampling

a sampling procedure where a sample is chosen from the people who are readily available to participate in the research. Any person who understands instructions and willing to participate (for ex. undergraduate university students).

5

Systematic sampling

divides on probability sampling and non-probability sampling techniques.

6

Probability sampling

involves drawing people from the population so that any member of the population has a specifiable probability of being sampled.

7

Simple random sampling

every individual has exactly the same probability of being sampled.

8

Sampling frame

complete listing of population of interest (for ex. class, voter poll).

9

Non probability sampling types

convenience sampling and purposive sampling.

10

Purposive sampling

obtains sample of people who all have particular characteristics.

11

Non probability samples are not useful

Non probability samples are not useful in estimating phenomenon in population.

12

If there is no bias....

If there is no bias the bigger the population the better it will reflect population.

13

Non-response

- where people don't feel like participating in or forget to participate in the research or their responses are lost in the mail.

14

What questionaries people are interested in?

People are interested in small questionnaires with reminders that show that they are important to the study.

15

Sample size

- # of participants in the study. Marked by letter N.

16

Survey instrument

a means of collecting data from the sample. (Questionarie, web page, etc)

17

Systematic sampling

sampling where participants are selected according to a specific plan or method.

18

Interviews

- just questionnaires where the questions are asked by researchers in person or by phone. The interviewer just writes down or records response after each question.

19

Computer-aided interviewing

used for telephone surveys. The computer assists interviewers which questions to ask next. Allow to conduct split-ballot surveys. Can help to turn surveys into experiments. Computer is programmed to ask different questions different people or depending on previous responses modify questions

20

Naturalistic observational studies

are widely used in both human and animal research and involve observation of behaviour without an attempt to interfere with it.

21

Socially desirable

belief that something is a right thing to say.

22

Problem of asking questions

When you ask people they might not remember what they did.

23

Questionnaires can also be biased ....

because people might report socially desirable things.

24

Non-obtrusive measures (non-reactive techniques)

- research procedures that ensure that the participants are not aware that they are being involved in the research process. People cannot change their behaviour in response being observed if they don't know that they were observed. This type of research might have serious ethical concerns. Only young children with consent of parents or animals can be observed.

25

Archival records

behaviour trace measures checking through books, videos, Internet. Non reactive, it already occurred.

26

Developmental surveys

research that examines long-term effects of ageing and maturation.

27

Cross-sectional study

cross section is taken at a particular point of time. May have internal validity problems (for example, IQ difference measurement in people who studied longer in university or less) (could be due to the fact that people with higher IQs stay longer in university).

28

Longitudinal study

taking a sample of participants and following them over a period of time. Can have problems with internal validity such as (form of testing, mortality, maturation effect).

29

Repeated testing

causes changes in participants. People may get better as they practice. May do worse because they lose interest.

30

Mortality effect

as time passes its likely that a number of people would drop out of the study (laziest and least intelligent).

31

Maturation

growing older, getting more educated as time passes by.

32

In developmental research maturation...

is the independent variable.

33

A successive cross-sectional study

- draw different sample from population at different times. Normally used in opinion polling.

34

Qualitative research methods

procedures for studying psychological and behavioural phenomena that do not involve their quantification.

35

Critical psychologists

challenge conventional approach to psychological research. However many mainstream psychologists are critical of qualitative methods.

36

Cohort

- a group of participants who take part in a particular piece of research at the same time.

37

how much research was published on undergrads?

Around 80% of published research papers are having psychology experiments conducted on first year students. Experimental researchers encourage not to use only undergrads.

38

WEIRD

Around 96% of experiments that are published in leading psychology journals are WEIRD (Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, Democratic). True of 12% of world population.

39

Is it possible to gain significant insights into human nature on the basis of samples and situations that don't represent all human society and experience?

Yes

40

Experimental sample has to be

representative of that population in theoretically relevant respects.For ex. if research is conducted on undergraduate students with vision topic it does not matter if they are undrgrad students or people with no education.

41

Researchers have to have a theory in order to

make judgments about what is a relevant dimension of experimental sample and experimental situation. Need to evaluate if sample is relevant to what we study.

42

Naive empiricism

the process of directly generalizing research findings to other settings and samples without basing that generalization on theory or explanation of research findings.

43

Matching

the process of attempting to remove systematic differences between experimental groups on variables not of primary interest but considered likely to produce differences in dependent variable. Very common in clinical and educational research. (cant manipulate intelligence, mental illness but can manipulate age, sex, economic background). Matching is used in some fields where baselines against which performance might be appraised. Randomisation is more effective in removing differences than matching. /matching can eliminate differences but not all of them.

44

Behaviourism

that human behaviour could be understood without need to examine or even posit the existence of internal states such as thoughts or emotions.

45

2 types of psychological phenomenon

Stable psychological characteristics: intelligence, personality, certain beliefs. (stable characteristics are measured with psychological tests compare one individual to results of general population)
Dynamic mental processes : memory, mood, judgment. (usually on spot measurement which they will compare with others at different conditions).

46

Stable psychological characteristics

Stable psychological characteristics: intelligence, personality, certain beliefs. (stable characteristics are measured with psychological tests compare one individual to results of general population)

47


Dynamic mental processes :


Dynamic mental processes : memory, mood, judgment. (usually on spot measurement which they will compare with others at different conditions).

48

Psychological test make a judgment about ...

Psychological test make a judgment about the relative position of person in a dimension of question.

49

Behavioural measures

study particular forms of behaviour and make inferences about psychological phenomena that caused or contributed to them. (now its not studied that often, scientists rely on self reports).

50

Self-report measures

asks people about their thoughts, feelings or reaction on a certain issue. Gain insights into both - processes and states.

51

Physiological measures

examine things that are believed to be directly associated with particular forms of mental activity. Can be thought as mental traces (for ex. heart rate or galvanic skin response). Blood flow in certain areas in brain can suggest about a certain activity or thoughts.

52

Behavioural trace measures

widely popular in psychology (environmental, consumer, organizational). Involve obtaining physical traces of what people done in the past.

53

None of the measures...

None of the measures provide a pure measure of the variables in which researchers are interested.

54

Extraneous variables

- pose a serious threat to the validity of the study. Can be ruled out woth multiple measures by conducting controlled experiments to rule out the influence of a certain variable. multiple measures rule out bad day, illness, etc because the experiment is conducted multiple times.

55

Reliability

- is this only this person or general population like that?

56

Random sample

we need to select people to participate in research in a way that everyone in a population has equal chance of being included.

57

If we want to GENERAIZE...

If we want to GENERAIZE then we need to ensure that the sample we study is a random sample of any sub population we have drawn it from and that sub population is representative of the broader population on characteristic we want to make generalization about.

58

Example of generalization

For ex. in vision experiment researchers believe that people in first year undergrad match to general population. Than we make this assumption simple characteristics ~ sub population characteristic ~ population characteristic. On the experimental schema white squares represented people with good colour vision, grey with bad. If the amount of white and grey squares is the same in population, sub population and sample that specific sample is representative.
However, when we measure IQ, students will higher IQs than general population so simple characteristics ~ sub population characteristic but NOT EQUAL TO population characteristic. The best way would be to take sample directly from population.
Can you draw generalization from such results? Yes! but only where population is similar in relevant ways.

59

Description

- researchers try to understand and map out patterns and regularities in relevant phenomena.

60

Prediction

researchers attempt to work out what the precursors and consequences of a given phenomenon.

61

Explanation

in which researchers seek to understand why particular phenomena occurs.

62

Application

- researchers attempt to use their knowledge to address relevant issues in the world at large

63

Biological psychology

brain's control over human and other animal behaviour.

64

Comparative psychology

animal's evolutionary adaptation to their environment.

65

Neuropsychology

- brain mechanisms underpinning cognitive processes.

66

Psychophysics

- quantitative relationships between physical stimuli and individual's experience of them.

67

Scientific method

a commitment to test knowledge through observation and (if possible) experiment. It is an empirical method (activity based on observing the world) that is used to discover truth or at least move towards its discovery.

68

3 reasons to conduct scientific method

discovery - the desire to find out more about human behaviour and mental processes associated with it.
verification - the desire to ensure that those findings are correct.
understanding - the desire to ensure that our interpretation of findings is correct.

69

Theory

- a set of explanatory principles used to make sense of and integrate a range of empirical findings.

70

Hypotheses

statements about the casual relationship between a particular phenomena. Statements of cause and effect. All psychological research is conducted to prove or disprove this research.

71

The most useful way to examine a theory

Theory helps to look for evidence. The most useful way to examine a theory is to test it on situation where it's least likely to occur (which happens rarely).

72

Redescription

- repeating theory observation. theory needs to explain not just describe findings. Theory needs to answer question "WHY"

73

Circular argument /reification

- empirical argument is wrongly believed to be explained simply by a process to state responsible for producing that finding.

74

Falsification or refutation

collecting evidence that contradicts my theory.

75

Casual relationship

an association between two or more things such as one causes another.

76

Falsification

- the process of rejecting conclusions and theories on the basis of evidence that is inconsistent with them.

77

Induction

the process of drawing conclusions and developing theories on the basis of accumulated observations.

78

Reification

treating an abstraction is it was a concrete thing

79

Reliability

- relates to our confidence that a given empirical finding can be reproduced again and again.

80

Replication

- if finding is reliable it will be easy to reproduce through this process.

81

Validity

refers to our confidence that a given finding shows what it prompts to show.
1.6% of articles used a word "replication".

82

Parsimony

- the best theory is the one that provides simplest most economical and efficient explanation.

83

Public

a good research needs to be public.

84

Truth about science

The scientific principles are ideals.
Science is a human enterprise.

85

Reasons to evaluate research

First it needs to be emphasized that one of the key transformations that students of psychology undergo in the course of their study is from being consumers of psychological knowledge to being producers of it.
Second reason in order to evaluate research conducted and reported by others we need to have some insight into the procedures and assumptions by which their work had been guided.