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Flashcards in Test 1 Deck (50):

What is capital?

Resources such as wealth, power, knowledge, and connections.


What are the three types of capital?

Economic, Social, and Cultural


What is economic capital?

Money and wealth including assets such as stocks, shares, houses, and other investments. Economic capital is also affected by debt such as mortgages and student loans.


What is social capital?

Connections. Weak and strong ties between individuals. Weak ties (common among higher class people) are more likely to be helpful than strong ties (which are common among lower class citizens).


How is cultural capital embodied?

Through knowledge and education as well as through the way you carry yourself and act around others.


How is cultural capital objectified?

Through what you possess (like the kind of car you have or how big your house is).


How is cultural capital institutionalized?

Through certificates, diplomas, and degrees.


What is sociology?

The systematic study of human behaviour in social structures. The sociological perspective analyzes the connection between personal struggles and social structures (public issues).


Who coined the term Verstehen?

Max Waber


What is Verstehen?

Understanding the motivations of social actors by putting ourselves in their place, by attempting to see the world from their point of view.


Who coined the term The Sociological Imagination?

C. Wright Mills


What is the sociological imagination?

A quality of mind that enables a person to see the connection between personal troubles and public issues.


What is micro sociology?

The level of analysis that studies face-to-face and small group interactions in order to determine how they shape social structures.


What is macro sociology?

The level of analysis that studies large-scale social structures in order to determine how the affect the lives of groups and individuals.


What is global sociology?

Patterns of social relations that lie outside and above the national level.


What is social constructionism?

The meanings that we attach to people, places, and things are determined by the social, cultural, and historical context we are in.


What is society?

Collectives of people who share a culture and usually a territory.


What is social structure?

How society is socially organized; stable patterns of social relations.


What is social location?

Where one is located in the social hierarchy.


What is agency?

How one acts in society, limited by your social location.


What is solidarity?

The degree to which group members share beliefs and values and the intensity and frequency of social interactions.


What are the types of solidarity?

Mechanical and organic.


What is mechanical solidarity?

Social bonds based on shared traditions and beliefs; in small communities and rural towns.


What is organic solidarity?

Social bonds based on difference, interdependence and individual rights; modern, urban societies.


What are the types of suicide?

Altruistic suicide (to much social solidarity), egoistic suicide (too little social solidarity), and anomic suicide (unclear social solidarity).


Who is the father of structural functionalism?

Emile Durkheim


What are the tenets of structural functionalism?

1. Society is a stable, ordered system of interrelated parts of social institutions.
2. Each social institution has a function that contributes to the continues equilibrium or stability of the whole.


How is deviance functional?

It creates a boundary between "us" and "them". It reinforces the norms/expectations of society and gives a reason to collectively punish groups of people who do not follow societal expectations.


Who is the father of conflict theory?

Karl Marx


What are the tenets of conflict theory?

1. Conflict and tensions are basic facts of social life.
2. These conflicts are often between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat, though other groups are in conflict as well.
3. Critical stance against existing social arrangements.


Who are the bourgeoisie?

The 'haves' or owners in society. These are capitalists who own the means of production and employ members of the proletariat.


Who are the proletariat?

The 'have nots' or workers of society. These are people who have no means of production and live by selling their labor.


What are the types of consciousness?

False consciousness (proletariat adopts bourgeoisie ideologies), and class consciousness (proletariat recognizes bourgeoisie oppression and revolts).


Who is the father of symbolic interactionism?

George Herbert Mead


What are the tenets of symbolic interactionism?

1. We act towards things on the basis of their meanings.
2. Meanings are not inherent; rather, they are negotiated through interaction with others.
3. Meanings can be modified and changed through interaction.


Who is the father of critical race theory?

W. E. B. Du Bois


What are the tenets of critical race theory?

1. Various aspects of racism.
2. Racial inequality between whites and non-whites is the result of individual and institutional discrimination.
3. Existing patterns of racial inequality can and should be changed for the benefits of all members of society.


Who is the mother of feminism?

Bell Hooks


What are the tenets of feminism?

1. Aspects of the patriarchy.
2. Gender inequality between men and women is the result of men having more legal, economic, political, and cultural rights than women.
3. Existing patterns of gewnderinequality can and should be changed for the benefit of all members of society.
4. Emphasis on intersections of gender, race, class, sexuality, etc. on shaping gender inequality.


Who is the mother of queer theory?

Judith Butler


What are the tenets of queer theory?

1. Categories of sex, gender, and sexuality should be viewed as social constructs.


What is quantitative data/research?

Macro sociology; that which can be expressed in numbers and stats.


What is qualitative data/research?

Micro sociology; that which cannot be expressed in numbers.


What are the three research paradigms?

Positivist, interpretivist, and critical.


What values follow a positivist approach?

Objective view of social reality; applying the scientific method to sociological research using quantitative experiments that can be replicated.


What values follow an interpretivist approach?

Subjective view of social reality; belief that research cannot be value-free and replicable. Use qualitative methods and verstehen.


What values follow a critical approach?

Subjective view of social reality but believe that there is an unseen "real" objective reality; belief that research cannot be value-free because people use research for their own political purposes. Use mixed methods and emphasize applied sociology to create social change.


What are the four aspects of research ethics?

Harm minimization, voluntary participation, privacy, and deception.


What are the types of harm in an experiment?

Physical harm, psychological harm and legal harm (increased risk of arrest).


What is the difference between confidentiality and anonymity?

In confidentiality, the researcher can connect respondents and evidence but agrees not to (as in they do not publish names). In anonymity, the researcher cannot connect respondents and evidence.