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Flashcards in Test #1 Deck (24):
1

What are the six criteria that help determine if behaviour is abnormal?

1. Behaviour is unusual
2. Behaviour is socially unacceptable or violates social norms.
3. Perception is interpretation of reality is faulty.
4. The person is in significant personal distress
5. Behaviour is maladaptive or self-defeating.
6. Behaviour is dangerous

2

Define epigenome.

The sum total of inherited and squires molecular variations to the genome that lead to changes in gene regulation.

3

Define gene expression.

The process by which a gene sequence becomes activated and is translated into the proteins that determine the structure and functions of body cells.

4

What is the process of preventing or suppressing a gene sequence from being translated into proteins called ?

Gene silencing

5

Define the preconscious

Descriptive of material that lies outside of present awareness but that can be brought into awareness by focusing attention.

6

Define unconscious

Pertaining to impulses or ideas that are not readily available to awareness, in many instances because they are kept from awareness.

The part of the mind that contains repressed material and primitive urges of the id.

7

What is the structural hypothesis?

The belief that the clashing forces within the personality could be divided inTo 3 structures (ego, superego and id)

8

Define the id

The unconscious psychic structure that is preset at birth contains instivtualndrives and is hovered by the pleasure principle.

9

Define the pleasure principle.

The governing principle of the id, involving the demands for immediate gratification of instinctual needs.

10

What is primary process thinking?

The mental process in infancy by which the id seeks gratification of primitive impulses by means of imagining it possesses what it desires. Thinking that is illogical and magical and fails to discriminate between reality and fantasy.

11

Define the ego

The psychic structure corresponding to the concept of self. The ego is governed by the reality principle and is responsible for findings socially acceptable outlets for the urging of the Id. The ego is characterised by the capacity to tolerate frustration and delay gratification

12

Reality principle

The governing principle of the ego that involves consideration of what is socially acceptable and practical in gratifying needs.

13

What is secondary process thinking ?

The reality based thinking process and problem solving activities of the ego

14

What is the terms for the centre of consciousness that organises sensory impressions and governs ones perceptions of the world?

The self

15

Define the superego.

The psychic structure that represents incorporation is the moral values of the parents and important others and floods the ego with guilt and shame when it falls short of meeting those standards.

16

What is the term for the process of incorporating the personality or behaviour of others

Identification

17

What does the moral principle govern?

The superego

18

What is the ego ideal in Freud’s view?

The configuration of higher social values and moral ideals embodies in the superego.

19

List the defence mechanisms

Repression
Regression
Displacement.
Denial
Reaction formation
Rationalisation
Projection
Sublimation

20

What so the difference between positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement?

Positive reinforcers increase the frequency of a behaviour when they are presented while the removal of negative reinforced increases the frequency of behaviour.

21

What the difference between a primary and secondary reinforcer ?

A primary reinforced is natural and is not learned. A secondary reinforced is valued through association.

22

What does Ellis believe leads to emotions?

Activating events —> beliefs —> consequences

23

What are Ellis’s 3 core irrational beliefs.

1. “I must be thoroughly competent [...] or else I am worthless “
2. “ Other significant ppl I. My life must treat me kindly [...] or else I can’t stand it and they are bad [...] “
3. “ conditions absolutely must be the way I want them to be and must never be difficult otherwise life is awful”

24

What are thecognitive errors according to Aaron beck

Selective abstraction
Overgeneralisation
Magnification
Absolutist thinking
Downward drift