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Flashcards in Test 1 Deck (35):
1

Tentative explanations of facts and relationships in science.

Theories

2

Private psychological activities that include thinking, perceiving, and feeling.

Mental Process

3

Directly observable and measurable actions.

Behavior

4

Approach to knowledge based on systematic observations .

Science

5

The science of behavior and mental processes.

Psychology

6

Mental processes of perceiving, believing, thinking, remembering, knowing, deciding and so on.

Cognition

7

The viewpoint in psychology that emphasizes the importance of cognitive processes, such as perception, memory, and thinking.

Cognitive psychology

8

The perspective in psychology founded by Binet that focus on the measurement of mental functions.

Psychometrics

9

The school of psychology that emphasizes the process of learning and the measurement of overt behavior.

Behaviorism

10

The viewpoint in the most important aspects of our behavior are learned from other persons, in society-family, friends and culture.

Social Learning Theory

11

The viewpoint in psychology that focuses on the nervous system in explaining behavior and mental processes.

Neuroscience Perspective

12

The part of the mind of which we can never be directly aware; the sore-house of primitive instruct motives and of memories and emotions that have been repressed.

Unconscious Mind

13

the psychological view that human beings possess an innate tendency to improve and the determine their lives through the decisions they make.

Humanistic Psychology

14

A method of psychotherapy developed by Freud bases in his belief that the root of all psychological problems is unconscious conflicts among the id, the ego, and the superego

Psychoanalysis

15

Internal states or conditions that activate behavior and give direction.

Motives

16

Each person sense of belonging to a particular ethnic group.

Ethnic Identity

17

A group of persons who are descendants of a common group of ancestors.

Ethnic Group

18

The patterns of behavior, beliefs, and values shared by a group of people.

Culture

19

One's view of oneself as male or female

Gender Identity

20

The perspective that promotes thinking of different cultures in relative terms rather than judgmental terms.

Cultural Relativity

21

Psychologists who use knowledge of psychology to solve and prevent human problems.

Applied Psychologists

22

The perspective in psychology that the psychological characteristics of human and nonhuman animals arose through natural selection.

Evolutionary Psychology

23

The method of studying people while they are receiving psychological help from a mental health professional.

Clinical Method

24

A research method based on recording behavior as it occurs in natural life setting.

Naturalistic Observation

25

A research method that uses interviews and questionnaires with individuals.

Survey Method

26

A research method that allows the researcher to manipulate the independent variable to study its effect on the dependent variable.

Formal Experiment

27

The group in an experiment that receives some value of the independent variable.

Experimental Group

28

The requirement that participants be assigned randomly to experimental conditions in formal experiments rather than in a systematic way.

Random Assignment

29

The requirement that all explanations for differences in the dependent variable are controlled in formal experiments, except for differences in conditions of independent variable.

Experimental Control

30

A formal experiment in which the researcher who measures the dependent variable does not know which participants are in the experimental group or the control group.

Blind Experiment

31

Subtle but potential powerful unintentional influences on the dependent variable caused by experimenter's interacting differently with participants in the experimental and control groups.

Experimenter Bias

32

Changes in behavior produced by a condition in a formal experiment though to be inert or inactive, such as an inactive pill.

Placebo Effect

33

A Predication based on a theory that is tested in a study.

Hypothesis

34

A group a human or nonhuman research participants studied to learn about an entire population of human beings or animals.

Sample

35

An altered state of consciousness in which the individual is highly relaxed and susceptible to suggestions.

Hypnosis