Flashcards in Test 1 Deck (82):
What are Women & Gender Studies?
Interdisciplinary academia that understands and works towards social justice and puts women and other marginalized persons at the center of inquiry
What does androcentrism mean?
andro=male, it means focused on men; masculinity is default, and everyone else are outsiders; makes women feel inferior, and not fairly represented
What is gender?
Use of social and cultural differences to frame our understandings of femininity and masculinity.
There are just two genders, male and female.
True or False?
False, there are way more than just two genders.
What made WGS originate?
The lack of representation of women in positions of power and education
What are two strategies used in order to change the trivialization of women and other minorities?
Rebalance the curriculum, or transform knowledge
When did women's studies originally begin?
During the civil rights movement in the 60s-70s
When did the first wave of feminism begin and what were its focuses?
19th-20th century; focus on women's rights and suffrage, and abolitionists like Susan B. Anthony
When did the second wave of feminism begin and what were its focuses?
60s-80s; focus on inequalities in the workplace, as well as freedoms of family, sexuality, and reproduction
When did the third wave of feminism begin and what were its focuses?
90s; influences by post-structuralism, queer theory, and multiracial feminism; focus on sexuality and identity; critique of the "monolithic" woman
What is the monolithic woman and why is this bad?
White, abled, middle-class, thin, heterosexual woman; bad because the standard woman does not appear like that; reflects those in power
What does "personal is political" mean?
A broad idea; assumes that everything we do is politically influenced or will influence political ideals in some way
What is a patriarchy?
A male dominated society or a society where the majority of positions of power are held by men; USA is largely a patriarchy, but not fully
What is feminism?
A personal perspective and social movement concerning equality and justice
What do liberal feminists believe?
The present system is viable; want to integrate women's public life, and achieve equal standing before law
What do radical feminists believe?
There is a systematic problem within public and private institutions; they critique the patriarch and gender roles
What do marxist feminists believe?
Use of economic explanations to understand oppression; analyze class systems
What do socialist feminists believe?
Both class analysis AND gender oppression to explain oppression
What do multiracial feminists believe?
Equality of all races and all genders
What do transnational feminists believe?
Belief in equality beyond borders
What is CEDAW?
Convention to End Discrimination Against Women; ratified by 186 countries (except USA)
What are the myths associated with feminism?
Backlash (negative/hostile reaction), misogyny (hatred towards women), "angry women," feminists hate men and want more power than them, and all feminists are lesbians or only women can be feminists
What do myths surrounding feminism create?
Stereotyping, avoiding being labeled as a feminist, men automatically hate women, creates certain expectations, makes women feminist feel as though they must be loud and outspoken about their opinions, and makes men feel like they aren't allowed to support women's rights
What is intersectionality?
The idea that experiences of gender differences are based on race, class, religion, etc.
What does intersectionality analyze?
The ways the systems of power are used to develop and maintain privileges for some groups and deprive other groups of it.
How does intersectionality work?
Transforms knowledge by incorporating ideas, experiences, and critical perspectives of previously excluded groups
What was the importance of the "No More Miss America" article?
Showed how pageants make children something they should not be; incorporates racism, classism, sexism, and ableism
What do reformist thinkers do?
Emphasize gender equality
What do revolutionary thinkers do?
Transform the system to end patriarchy and sexism
When middle class white women begin to attain status, they lose interest in helping others since it doesn't pertain to them. True or False.
True. White, middle class women often lose interest in movements if they don't benefit them
What is imperialism?
Using power or military force in order to get control of a society
What does it mean for something to be institutionalized?
Based in the high power institutions; ranking of differences at individual level (micro level) and maintained at macro level
What are privileges?
Advantages based on status or position in society; unearned
It is easier to grant that others are disadvantaged than to admit your own privilege. True or False.
What is oppression?
Discrimination and privilege based off of perceived or real differences
What is the importance of the article "Thinking outside the check-box?"
Discusses how the multiracial population finally was allowed to check multiple boxes on surveys for race; allows for acceptance and understanding of multiracial individuals
What is one assumption the book talks about, and how we should not believe our assumptions?
"Our founding fathers carved this great state out of the wilderness," assumes that the land was made, not stolen, and our founding fathers were the ones who discovered the land, which is incorrect. Also ignores the fact that many native americans were murdered.
How is power expressed?
Power is embedded in discourse; power isn't always binary
What is ideology?
Systematic body of concepts, ideas, and beliefs
What is the bootstrap myth?
The idea that if you work hard, no matter your race, class, gender, etc., you will eventually be successful
Racial wealth gaps are very pronounced and it continues to grow. True or False.
What are examples of institutions and what is embedded in these?
Economy, government, military, family, criminal justice, marriage, religion, education, science, health, etc. Racism and sexism are embedded in these institutions
What are the three structures of oppression?
Institutional, Symbolic, and Individual
What is the myth of meritocracy?
The idea that government holds power by people selected on the basis of their ability.
What is cisgender privilege?
"Privilege" assumed to cisgender people; cultural and political ideal
What does it mean to be transgender?
When assigned gender and gender identity are different; often transition to gender identity through procedures, but not always
Class mobility has increased, though many think it has decreased. True or False.
False. Class mobility is thought to increase, but it really is steadily decreasing.
What is considered the "normal class?"
It is impossible to have equality between classes. True or False.
True. It isn't possible to be completely equal within classes when there are separate classes.
What creates disability?
Biological and social aspects; the world is designed for the typical young, abled person, and most forget about the disabled.
What is gender performativity?
The idea that those who fail to do their gender "correct" will fail and are punished in some way.
What is social constructionism?
Theory of knowledge that holds characteristics typically thought to be immutable and solely biological
What is gender essentialism?
The belief that there are innate, unchanging, biological differences between man and woman
What are the issues surrounding gender essentialism?
Reduction of social organization and social complexity to an effect of biology; tends to legitimate binary models of male vs. female; tends to legitimate unequal treatment
What is the binary model?
Overlooks and devalues differences within categories and similarities between categories
What is gender ranking?
The social construction of differences
What does it mean to be intersex?
A person who is born with reproductive or sexual anatomy but doesn't fit in the regular male/female norms
What is gender assignment?
What is given at birth because of physical anatomy
What is gender identity?
The internal knowledge of gender
What is gender expression?
The way we present ourselves to the world
What is the importance of Maria Patino?
She was an intersex woman athlete; examiners began to examine female athletes and request them to become naked for the purpose of checking that they are actually a woman (if they have a vagina)
Gender is persuasive, it can be assumed that it was bred into our genes. True or False.
How are women socially constructed?
As subordinates; womens tasks are "easy" and men tasks are "hard;" limits women's social power
What is neuroplasticity?
The ability to shape the environment that then shapes our brains.
Intelligence is fixed and hardwired and cannot change. True or False.
False. Intelligence is not fixed or hardwired and it can change due to the environment and surroundings.
Why do boys do worse in school than girls?
Disengagement in classes and schooling is considered more masculine. Boys do better on standardized tests, but have worse final grades in classes
Inner strength was brought up by only black women while the ability to express emotion was brought up by white women. True or False.
What are women tied to compared to men?
Women are tied to nature and body while men are tied to culture
What do bodies represent?
Identity, self expression, and it is our point of contact with the rest of the world.
What is the beauty ideal?
-Standards of beauty differ from culture to culture and change over time
-It reflects the relations of power in society
-Standards of beauty are enforced in complex ways
-Beauty is apart of capitalism and US consumerism
What is objectification?
Seeing a body as an object
Only women can be objectified. True or False.
False. Men are also objectified, but not to the extent of women.
What are the types of eating disorders?
Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, compulsive eating, and muscle dysmorphia
It is not possible for men to be dissatisfied with their bodies. True or False.
False. Men have become more and more unhappy with their bodies (has increased from 15% to 43% of men unhappy in the last decade)
How can we resist beauty ideals?
Try not to participate in beauty ideals, appropriate and play with cultural ideals, and be conscious and informed about decisions
What is the timeline for bras?
1913- first bra without midriff coverage
1930s- bras began to enhance roundness
Then mass production and standard sizes created
1950s- training bras
What were bra debates about?
About medical and psychological benefits
What did the article about prosthetic legs discuss?
Children are innocent and do not care about appearance; classism because not everyone can afford prosthetics
How do black women differ from white women in the topic of body consciousness?
Less eating disorders, but differences in body concerns; negative effects of exposure to beauty ideals
What does the article, "Hold that Nose" discuss?
The US and cultural norms of what nose sizes should be; norms of "fixing" insecurities;" is the pressure due to strides against antisemitism and racism?
What does the article, "If Men Could Menstruate," discuss?
The idea that if men had periods, products would be free; the powerful are thought to be better than powerless; logic has nothing to do with it