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Flashcards in Test 1 Deck (79):
1

Incarnational Nature

Just as Jesus was both fully divine and fully human, so Scripture is fully divine and fully human
('in the flesh")

2

Meaning of "canon"

ancient Egyptian word for "reed"
measuring to see if books stack up into a grouping

3

list the criteria for the new testament

1. apostolicity- authorship by an apostle or apostolic associate. (apostle=came in contact with Jesus)
2. antiquity- How old is it? One criterion we can apply to the old testament
-OT=Moses to Artaxerxes (1300-423 BC)
-NT=Apostolic Age (30-100 AD) 30-when Jesus died and rose
3. Universality- how far it has spread and is used regularly in churches. Recognized by whole of the church-not just a region
4. Orthodoxy-correct teaching (in line theologically with the teachings of the church and apostles)
5. traditional use-how often it is used regularly in worship
6. inspiration-continuity of character, spiritual discernment, and Jesus believed it was inspired and we believe and follow Jesus
7. christocentrism- does it point to Jesus?

4

prophetic chain

window of time between eras--if it is written in this time, it belongs in the cannon

5

torah

1st 5 books of the Bible
"pentateuch"- greek for OT

6

Council at Jamnia

AD 90
This closed the Hebrew canon (OT) from Genesis to Malachi

7

Apocrypha

books Luther said dont belong in the Bible
the catholics keep it but it is not accepted by protestants and Jews

8

Hellenism

Alexander the Great decided to educated non-greeks in all things Greek except religion

9

septuagint (LXX)

means 70
Greek translation of the Hebrew Old testament

10

Jerome

didnt deem the apocrypha cannonical
wrote the Vulgate (completed in 407), which was the entire Bible translated into "vulgar" language, or Latin.
1st christian to to translate the entire Bible

11

Geneva Bible

English translation
1. first Bible to divide into chapters and verses
2. used italics to show they inserted a word for the sake of readability

12

Authorized bible

1611- king james version-wanted it to last for centuries

13

Kerygma

"to preach/proclaim"
the preached gospel before it was written down

14

Justin Martyr

called Mark the "memoirs of peter"

15

Maricon's Canon

early canon that threw out the OT and gospels except Luke and Paul (didnt like Jews)
-it was erronous but motivated the church to speed up process of proposing more credible canons

16

Muratorian canon

-earliest corrective to maricon's and best known
-had most of NT books- everything except hebrews and 1 & 2 Peter

17

Who had a big role in getting revelation in the Bible?

constantine

18

When did the whole Bible close?

With Athanasius in 367 AD

19

2 ancient languages the Bible is written in?

Old Testament-Hebrew
New Testament- Koine Greek

20

exegesis

"bringing the word out"
going into the Biblical world and getting context and wat the author is saying. Literary context and why. Finding original meaning in Biblical world

21

eisegesis

"into"- reading into scripture what you think is there
going into it with subjective preunderstanding

22

Explain the commandment: "you shall not carry God's name lightly or irreverantly"

take="nasa"=take up or carry
vain="mist"=without substance
not just by your words but by your actions and thoughts

23

explain the commandment: "honor your father and your mother, that your days may be long in the land that the Lord your God is giving you"

-honor what parenthood represents
-written for a nation of people (not individuals)
-if we invest and value our families, we will thrive as a nation
-reach out to people without family
-better chance of surviving as a nation

24

when was the babylonian exile?

586 BC
darkest moment in Jewish history

25

important developments during the babylonian exile

1. a lot of scripture was written down
-Joshua --> 2 Kings
2. synagogues
3. scribes
4. persian empire
-zorastrianism religion influences Judaism- belief in 2 gods and afterlife and angels and demons
5. deuteronomic history/theology
-obey God and you will be blessed; disobey God and you will be cursed

26

Explain why Judah thought they were defeated

deuteronomic history- they thought they were cursed by God because they disobeyed
(the poor, blind, and disabled were all cursed by God)

27

What did Cyrus the Great do?

wrote the decree of cyrus which told the Jews in exile to go home and build their temple. He had money and livestock for them

28

Who wanted to hellenize religion?

antiochus epiphanes (thought he was a god)

29

Who sparked the Maccabean revolt?

mattathias

30

result of maccabean revolt

reclaimed Jerusalem in 167 BC
-cleansed the temple
-celebrated 8 nights and burned oil (hanukkah)

31

how could Jesus be fully human and yet without sin?

sin is not a normal part of being human. it is unnatural.
-adam and eve were fully innocent and fully human.
-sin is a corruption of our original humanity
-he was born into a broken world, not born a sinner
-jesus was more human than us

32

what did people call jesus?

rabbi (teacher)

33

What did Jesus call himself?

"son of man" which means he is both human and divine

34

messiah

annointed one
Chritstos-(Greek)

35

What did the disciples not understand?

That Jesus wasnt the Messiah that they thought they would get--they wanted him to be a huge war leader

36

The meaning of "gospel"

-euangelion-"good news"
-old english-"God story" or "good news"

37

kerygma

preached gospels before it was written down

38

2 significant developments leading to written gospel

1. founding of churches--learning how to find Jesus
2. persecution

39

synoptic gospels

"see together"- similar in their content, style, and chronology
-matthew, mark, and luke similar but john is different
-each have unique material (M, L, and Q (matt is M & Q))
-john contains a good deal of new material

40

what do matthew and luke draw from?

mark

41

type of literature of gospels

not just history or biography
theological and evangelistic
each took liberties to structure their stories to highlight particular things

42

mark called the

earliest gospel

43

purpose of mark

to encourage the persecuted believers
depicts Jesus as victor over dark powers

44

characteristics of mark as an author

-native of Jerusalem
-people hung out at his mom's house
-went with paul and barnabas on their first missonary journey
-close friends with peter

45

unique characteristics of mark's gospel

1. gospel of action
2. uses "immediately" or "at once" appear 46 times
3. written in vivid, detailed language
4. records fewest sayings of Jesus
5. does not contain the birth narrative
6. does not contain resurrection appearances
7. interested in getting to the point
8. highlights the "messianic secret" (Jesus would say "tell no one"

46

matthew is called

the jewish gospel

47

where matthew was written

antioch where followers of jesus were first called christians

48

matthew's job

tax collector

49

unique characteristics of matthew

1. highlights Jesus as the fulfillment of OT prophecy
2. 9 more OT prophecy fulfillment references than in other gospels
3. jewish christian targeting the jewish community
4. stresses jesus as the long-awaited messiah, the king descended from david
5. traces jesus' family genealogy back to abraham, father of all jews

50

how did matthew revise mark?

-improved rough style of mark
-shortened mark's stories so he could include his own
-rearranged the order in some places
(mark=chronology; matthew=pattern of discourse followed by narrative)

51

how did matthew enlarge mark?

-added material at the beginning and end of the story (birth, passion and resurrection)
-inserting the 5 great discourses (sermon on the mount and parables of the kingdom)
-the additional OT prophecy references

52

what did matthew intend the gospel to be?

"church training" or discipleship manual (heavy on teaching)

53

which is the only gospel where the word "church" appears?

matthew

54

how does matthew confirm that his gospel is for jews and gentiles?

canaanite woman's daughter healed-- jesus teaching the disciples about racism

55

luke called

the gentile gospel

56

_____ is volume 1 of a 2 volume work. _____- ______

Luke and Acts

57

luke's occupation and description

doctor
paul's friend and traveled with him
referred to 3 other times in paul's letters
gentile by birth who had become a christian in his adult years

58

unique characteristics of luke

1. best written of the gospels
2. the longest gospel
3. contains exclusively some of Jesus' best-known parables:
-prodigal son
-good samaritan
-great banquet
-rich fool
-rich man and lazarus
-pharisee and the tax collector

59

Luke is the gospel for...

1. everybody
2. the underdog
3. womanhood
4. prayer
5. joy

60

luke for everybody

-for all people
-jesus' genealogy traced all the way back to Adam
-samaritans are singled out by Jesus for high praise
-son of simeon-jesus hailed as "a light to lighten the Gentiles"

61

luke for underdogs

highlights Jesus as a friend to the friendless
zaccheus
connects with poor and common people

62

luke for womanhood

-jesus' respect and concern for women emphasized
-respect for mary, elizabeth, and anna at the beginning
-mary mag, joana, susana and others supported Jesus' work
-first evangelists-martha, mary, and mary, and mary mag
-phillips daughters preached in acts

63

luke for prayer

-we see jesus praying more than other gospels
-before his baptism, in solitude, in garden, and on cross
-3 parables on prayer-"how much more", persistent widow, and pharisee and tax collector

64

luke for joy

-joy pervades the gospel
-gladness at beginning and end

65

john is called

the spiritual gospel

66

what is the most debated authorship?

who wrote john--most likely he began it and was instrumental but he died before he finished it so his associates finished it (johannine community)

67

characteristics of john

1. very different from 3 other gospels
2. sometimes called "the book of glory"-focuses on divine Jesus
3. a more theological/philosophical perspective of Jesus
4. goes for a deeper meaning of what Jesus is teaching through his actions

68

accounts in john that arent in the other gospels

1. conversation with nicodemus (comes to Jesus by night, but becomes bolder along the way)
2. the conversation with the woman at the well
3. raising lazarus from the dead
4. washing of the disciples feet
5. thomas' skepticism
6. woman caught in adultery

69

what does John call miracles?

signs-point to something beyond themselves, a deeper truth

70

why did jesus weep?

showing compassion and was sad they didnt understand and were doubting him

71

what is jesus teaching through the raising of lazarus?

real faith is revealed when it is put to the test

72

religious and political influences at time of jesus

1. harod the great
2. scribes
3. pharisees
4. saducees
5. zealots

73

harod the great

paranoid king who had all male infants murdered around bethlehem

74

scribes

confront jesus and try to out-bible him

75

pharisees

"the separated ones" (put on pedestal)
-believed in a significant afterlife
-accepted torah and the prophets as scripture
-believed in a coming messiah
-not as powerful as the sadducees

76

sadducees

-worked with pharisees
-rich land owners and aristocrats who were kiss ups to the romans
-didnt believe in a significant afterlife
-only accepted torah
-didnt believe in a coming messiah
-lots of power-didnt want to unsettle/change things but fewer in number

77

sanhedrin

jewish high court made up of pharisee and sadducees

78

zealots

-believed roman occupation of palistine was abomination
-wanted to overthrow romans
---sicarri-"dagger men"- assassins of roman officials and hated tax collectors

79

why is acts 1:13 significant?

list of disciples of Jesus- showing that Jesus brings together worst enemies like tax collectors (matthew) and zealots (simon)