Flashcards in Test 1 Deck (79):
Just as Jesus was both fully divine and fully human, so Scripture is fully divine and fully human
('in the flesh")
Meaning of "canon"
ancient Egyptian word for "reed"
measuring to see if books stack up into a grouping
list the criteria for the new testament
1. apostolicity- authorship by an apostle or apostolic associate. (apostle=came in contact with Jesus)
2. antiquity- How old is it? One criterion we can apply to the old testament
-OT=Moses to Artaxerxes (1300-423 BC)
-NT=Apostolic Age (30-100 AD) 30-when Jesus died and rose
3. Universality- how far it has spread and is used regularly in churches. Recognized by whole of the church-not just a region
4. Orthodoxy-correct teaching (in line theologically with the teachings of the church and apostles)
5. traditional use-how often it is used regularly in worship
6. inspiration-continuity of character, spiritual discernment, and Jesus believed it was inspired and we believe and follow Jesus
7. christocentrism- does it point to Jesus?
window of time between eras--if it is written in this time, it belongs in the cannon
1st 5 books of the Bible
"pentateuch"- greek for OT
Council at Jamnia
This closed the Hebrew canon (OT) from Genesis to Malachi
books Luther said dont belong in the Bible
the catholics keep it but it is not accepted by protestants and Jews
Alexander the Great decided to educated non-greeks in all things Greek except religion
Greek translation of the Hebrew Old testament
didnt deem the apocrypha cannonical
wrote the Vulgate (completed in 407), which was the entire Bible translated into "vulgar" language, or Latin.
1st christian to to translate the entire Bible
1. first Bible to divide into chapters and verses
2. used italics to show they inserted a word for the sake of readability
1611- king james version-wanted it to last for centuries
the preached gospel before it was written down
called Mark the "memoirs of peter"
early canon that threw out the OT and gospels except Luke and Paul (didnt like Jews)
-it was erronous but motivated the church to speed up process of proposing more credible canons
-earliest corrective to maricon's and best known
-had most of NT books- everything except hebrews and 1 & 2 Peter
Who had a big role in getting revelation in the Bible?
When did the whole Bible close?
With Athanasius in 367 AD
2 ancient languages the Bible is written in?
New Testament- Koine Greek
"bringing the word out"
going into the Biblical world and getting context and wat the author is saying. Literary context and why. Finding original meaning in Biblical world
"into"- reading into scripture what you think is there
going into it with subjective preunderstanding
Explain the commandment: "you shall not carry God's name lightly or irreverantly"
take="nasa"=take up or carry
not just by your words but by your actions and thoughts
explain the commandment: "honor your father and your mother, that your days may be long in the land that the Lord your God is giving you"
-honor what parenthood represents
-written for a nation of people (not individuals)
-if we invest and value our families, we will thrive as a nation
-reach out to people without family
-better chance of surviving as a nation
when was the babylonian exile?
darkest moment in Jewish history
important developments during the babylonian exile
1. a lot of scripture was written down
-Joshua --> 2 Kings
4. persian empire
-zorastrianism religion influences Judaism- belief in 2 gods and afterlife and angels and demons
5. deuteronomic history/theology
-obey God and you will be blessed; disobey God and you will be cursed
Explain why Judah thought they were defeated
deuteronomic history- they thought they were cursed by God because they disobeyed
(the poor, blind, and disabled were all cursed by God)
What did Cyrus the Great do?
wrote the decree of cyrus which told the Jews in exile to go home and build their temple. He had money and livestock for them
Who wanted to hellenize religion?
antiochus epiphanes (thought he was a god)
Who sparked the Maccabean revolt?
result of maccabean revolt
reclaimed Jerusalem in 167 BC
-cleansed the temple
-celebrated 8 nights and burned oil (hanukkah)
how could Jesus be fully human and yet without sin?
sin is not a normal part of being human. it is unnatural.
-adam and eve were fully innocent and fully human.
-sin is a corruption of our original humanity
-he was born into a broken world, not born a sinner
-jesus was more human than us
what did people call jesus?
What did Jesus call himself?
"son of man" which means he is both human and divine
What did the disciples not understand?
That Jesus wasnt the Messiah that they thought they would get--they wanted him to be a huge war leader
The meaning of "gospel"
-old english-"God story" or "good news"
preached gospels before it was written down
2 significant developments leading to written gospel
1. founding of churches--learning how to find Jesus
"see together"- similar in their content, style, and chronology
-matthew, mark, and luke similar but john is different
-each have unique material (M, L, and Q (matt is M & Q))
-john contains a good deal of new material
what do matthew and luke draw from?
type of literature of gospels
not just history or biography
theological and evangelistic
each took liberties to structure their stories to highlight particular things
mark called the
purpose of mark
to encourage the persecuted believers
depicts Jesus as victor over dark powers
characteristics of mark as an author
-native of Jerusalem
-people hung out at his mom's house
-went with paul and barnabas on their first missonary journey
-close friends with peter
unique characteristics of mark's gospel
1. gospel of action
2. uses "immediately" or "at once" appear 46 times
3. written in vivid, detailed language
4. records fewest sayings of Jesus
5. does not contain the birth narrative
6. does not contain resurrection appearances
7. interested in getting to the point
8. highlights the "messianic secret" (Jesus would say "tell no one"
matthew is called
the jewish gospel
where matthew was written
antioch where followers of jesus were first called christians
unique characteristics of matthew
1. highlights Jesus as the fulfillment of OT prophecy
2. 9 more OT prophecy fulfillment references than in other gospels
3. jewish christian targeting the jewish community
4. stresses jesus as the long-awaited messiah, the king descended from david
5. traces jesus' family genealogy back to abraham, father of all jews
how did matthew revise mark?
-improved rough style of mark
-shortened mark's stories so he could include his own
-rearranged the order in some places
(mark=chronology; matthew=pattern of discourse followed by narrative)
how did matthew enlarge mark?
-added material at the beginning and end of the story (birth, passion and resurrection)
-inserting the 5 great discourses (sermon on the mount and parables of the kingdom)
-the additional OT prophecy references
what did matthew intend the gospel to be?
"church training" or discipleship manual (heavy on teaching)
which is the only gospel where the word "church" appears?
how does matthew confirm that his gospel is for jews and gentiles?
canaanite woman's daughter healed-- jesus teaching the disciples about racism
the gentile gospel
_____ is volume 1 of a 2 volume work. _____- ______
Luke and Acts
luke's occupation and description
paul's friend and traveled with him
referred to 3 other times in paul's letters
gentile by birth who had become a christian in his adult years
unique characteristics of luke
1. best written of the gospels
2. the longest gospel
3. contains exclusively some of Jesus' best-known parables:
-rich man and lazarus
-pharisee and the tax collector
Luke is the gospel for...
2. the underdog
luke for everybody
-for all people
-jesus' genealogy traced all the way back to Adam
-samaritans are singled out by Jesus for high praise
-son of simeon-jesus hailed as "a light to lighten the Gentiles"
luke for underdogs
highlights Jesus as a friend to the friendless
connects with poor and common people
luke for womanhood
-jesus' respect and concern for women emphasized
-respect for mary, elizabeth, and anna at the beginning
-mary mag, joana, susana and others supported Jesus' work
-first evangelists-martha, mary, and mary, and mary mag
-phillips daughters preached in acts
luke for prayer
-we see jesus praying more than other gospels
-before his baptism, in solitude, in garden, and on cross
-3 parables on prayer-"how much more", persistent widow, and pharisee and tax collector
luke for joy
-joy pervades the gospel
-gladness at beginning and end
john is called
the spiritual gospel
what is the most debated authorship?
who wrote john--most likely he began it and was instrumental but he died before he finished it so his associates finished it (johannine community)
characteristics of john
1. very different from 3 other gospels
2. sometimes called "the book of glory"-focuses on divine Jesus
3. a more theological/philosophical perspective of Jesus
4. goes for a deeper meaning of what Jesus is teaching through his actions
accounts in john that arent in the other gospels
1. conversation with nicodemus (comes to Jesus by night, but becomes bolder along the way)
2. the conversation with the woman at the well
3. raising lazarus from the dead
4. washing of the disciples feet
5. thomas' skepticism
6. woman caught in adultery
what does John call miracles?
signs-point to something beyond themselves, a deeper truth
why did jesus weep?
showing compassion and was sad they didnt understand and were doubting him
what is jesus teaching through the raising of lazarus?
real faith is revealed when it is put to the test
religious and political influences at time of jesus
1. harod the great
harod the great
paranoid king who had all male infants murdered around bethlehem
confront jesus and try to out-bible him
"the separated ones" (put on pedestal)
-believed in a significant afterlife
-accepted torah and the prophets as scripture
-believed in a coming messiah
-not as powerful as the sadducees
-worked with pharisees
-rich land owners and aristocrats who were kiss ups to the romans
-didnt believe in a significant afterlife
-only accepted torah
-didnt believe in a coming messiah
-lots of power-didnt want to unsettle/change things but fewer in number
jewish high court made up of pharisee and sadducees
-believed roman occupation of palistine was abomination
-wanted to overthrow romans
---sicarri-"dagger men"- assassins of roman officials and hated tax collectors