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1

Correlation studies

Examines whether or not two variables are associated with each other in some way.

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Positive Correlation

Correlation where one variable increases, and the other increases

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Negative Correlation

As one variable increases the other decreases

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No Correlation

A cloud of points

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Third Variable Problem

A type of confounding in which a third variable leads to a mistaken causal relationship between two others.

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There is a sucker born every second

Braunman statement.

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What does braunman statement have to do with research methods.

curiosity about human nature
-dont believe everything you hear about humann nature
-don't be a sucker
-

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What are ways of knowing about the world?

-Intuition
-Logic
-Authority
-Observation

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What are the 4 cannons of science?

-Determinism
-Empiricism
-Parsimony
-Testability

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The idea that everything has some meaningful cause. "people often see a connection in things that are not"

Determinism

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A fundamental principle that is accepted on faith in a given area

Canon

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Method of acquiring knowledge that relies on observation "straight from the horses mouth" "the proof is in the pudding"

Empiricism

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When faced with two competing theories that do an equally good job of explaining something we should pick the simpler or more parsimonious one.

Parsimony

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The idea that it is a bad to make more assumptions that you absolutley need for any theory. the "razor" referes to the act of cutting out whatever is unnecessary and leaving intact only the essential aspects"

Parsimony exp "Occam's Razor"

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Any theory that needs to be confirmable and discomfirmable

testability

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Scientist should go a step beyond putting their theories to some kind of test by actively seeking out test that could prove their theories wrong.

falsifiability

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The belief that science should only be based on things that can be observed with absolute certainty. The belief that the way to test scientific theories is to actively try to prove them wrong

Logical Positivist (Karl Popper

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An abstract concept that represents ideas, experience and or behavior
love, attitiudes, aggression, prejudice, jelousy. these are conceptual to study them scientifically we need to make them concrete.

Construct

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Connect unobservable traits to something that can be observed.
Ex. basketball playing ability- #of baskets
Ex. How good is a show # of tickets sold

Operational definitions.

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The correct answer has not changed but your intuition about it has, people who change the answer (ignore the base rate information, information abouth the proportion of things in the popluatlion and rely too heavlity on subjective information

Base rates problem

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You get two types of information from your surroundings.

Base rate information and subjective information

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People falsy see correlations where there are no correlations

Illusory Correlations

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3 things that consitute an experiment

Manipulation
Radomization
statistical testing

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most common way to report central tendency

mean

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when you have outliers what is the best measure of central tendency

median

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numerical Measures of variability

range
standard Deviationg
variance

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V=s^2

variance

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another name for the variability of a distribution but refers to the visual shape that variability gives the curve

kurtosis

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short and fat curves that have few scores in the center than the normal curve and more scores in the outer slopes

platkurtic (like a platapus)

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tall and skinny curves that contain more scores in the center tend to have higher peaks and are reffered to as leptokurtic

leptokurtic(like a tall lepercon)

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somewhere in between, a normal distribution, a normal curve

Mesokurtic "m for middle"

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refers to peakedness or flatness of a distribution

kurtosis

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A distribution's ___ refers to where the whether the distribution is "normal" or wheter a bunch of participants fall to the left of the curve or to the right of the curve.

skewness

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when the tail of a graph is on the left side, mean moves more to the left mode is more accurately to represent central tendency

left skewed is negatively skewed

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when tail of a graph is on the right side The mean gets shoved to the right a big because higher scores exist and the mode tend to mode more accurate represnts the central tendency of distribution

right skewed is positively skewed

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three shapes of distribution

rectangular distribution
bimodal
normal distribution

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rare, they usual mean that your sample consist of two subsamples

bimodal distribution

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-1 or +1 correlation

the relationship between two variables gets stronger "stronger correlation"

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the sign in the correlation tellsyou

whether is a positive or negative correlation

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In a correlation the number tells you____and the sign tell syou

how strong, what direction

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accuracy

validity

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three types of validity

Internal validity, external validity, construct validity.

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the extent to which your findings provide information about causuality IV causes DV our independent v caused the observed DV. This is high for experiments

internal validity

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Generalizability, the idea that what happens in your experiment will happen in the real world. Findings would apply to other people, enviornemnts.

External validity

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How to increae external validity

mundane realism
experimental realism

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create a setting that is similar as possible to the type of real world setting youre intereseted in

mundane realism

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the extent to which a study is realistic to participants and therefore makes them beahave naturally

experimental realism

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the extent tow hich the IV and DV trully represent the abstract variable in which you are interested in .

Construct validity

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consistency and repeatability. maximize reliability of your measure by asking many observers to make many observations on many occasions.

Reliability

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observers, the degree to which diffrent judges independently agree on a judgment

Inter-rater reliability

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observations . The degree to which all the specific items or observations in a multple item measure behave the same. You want to see people repsond the same way to all 3 questons asking the same things.

Internal consistency

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Occasions, the degree to which an item or a scale correlates postively with itself over time. exp to what degree is someones score stable over time.

Test retest reliability

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what are the different types of measurement scales

-ordinal
-nominal
-interval
-ration

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meaningful but arbituary, names or categories (not numerical) exp gender, age, race, grade level

-nominal scale

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-involves in order or ranking exp birth order, ranking in contest even if they take under account the order of things they are not sensitive to the absolute difference between those things.

-Ordinal Sca

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-measurement scale that makes use of real number "amounts" reflects relative differences in magnitude
exp IQ scale, interval scales. Allows for ties! two people can have the same number, allows for negative numbers

-interval scale

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speaks about ratios of values 90 year old is twice as old as a 40 year old.

ratio scale