Flashcards in Test 1 Deck (68):
What are the two Anticholinergics we most often use?
Atropine & Glycopyyrolate
How does an Anticholinergic work?
What is the main reason we use Anticholinergics?
To prevent/treat bradycardia
What is the only Phenothiazine we use?
What are the 2 main Benzodiazepines we use?
Diazepam and Midazolam
Are Benzodiazepines a pre-med or an induction drug?
Pre-med used for sedation and/or muscle relaxation to ease induction/recovery
Name 2 Alpha2 Agonists that we commonly use. Are they reversible or non-reversible?
Dexmedetomidine and Xylazine are both reversible
What are the 2 Alpha-2 Antagonists used to reverse the effects of Alpha-2 Agonists?
Atipamezole and Yohimbine
True or False: Dexmedetomidine causes hypotension within the first 30 minutes and then hypertension begins
False, other way around.
Name 2 of the most common Opioid Pure Agonists we use in our medicine
Morphine and Hydromorphone
What are some of the adverse effects of Opioid agonists?
Bradycardia, Severe respiratory depression, panting, Increased intraocular and intracranial pressure
Why should opioids be avoided in patients with a GI obstruction?
They slow GI motility
Which opioid is the Partial Agonist? What does this mean?
Buprenorphine. Only partially binds to pain receptors and can only be partially reversed
Which opioid is the Agonist-Antagonist? What does this mean?
Butorphanol is a Agonist/Antagonist which means after its maximum effective dose, giving anymore would cause antagonistic effects and therefore would reverse the desired effects
What is the opioid antagonist that reverses all opiates?
What are the 2 non-barbiturate induction drugs we almost always choose?
Propofol and Alfaxalone
What does it mean to give Propofol "to effect"?
Calculate and draw up the full dose, but give 1/3 - 1/2 and see if the patient is sedated enough to intubate. You typically do not need the entire calculated dose.
True or false: propofol is long acting and full recovery happens within 1-2 hours
False. It is short acting and full recovery can happen within 20-30 minutes
Why wouldnt you use Propofol in a hypoproteinemic patient?
The drug is highly protein bound
What are the 3 most common Barbiturate induction agents?
Thiopental, Pentobarbital, Methohexital
Which barbiturate that we use is Short Acting?
Why is repeated doses of Barbiturates NOT recommended?
Barbiturates have a longer half life and accumulate in body compartments if repeated doses are given
Name the 2 most common Dissociative induction agents that we use
Ketamine & Etomidate
True or false: It is best to give Ketamine without any pre-med
Fake news. Ketamine causes narcosis and NEEDS to be mixed or pre-treated with a Benzodiazepine
True or false: Giving cats Diazepam orally works faster than IV
NO. GIVING CATS DIAZEPAM ORALLY CAUSES LIVER FAILURE.
Which drug besides Diazepam can be added to Ketamine to further ease induction?
Why is Etomidate such a safe choice?
Minimal side effects, cardiac and respiratory safe
Give an example of a Halogenated Organic Compound we typically use
Isoflurane replaced Halothane because _____
Halothane had many side effects including cardiac issues. Isoflurane is cardiac safe as well as safe for epileptics.
Why are warming elements required for a patient undergoing Isoflurane maintenance?
Isoflurane causes Hypotension and Hypothermia
What are 3 techniques of orchidectomy?
Pre-scrotal, scrotal incision, scrotal ablation
How is an open orchidectomy performed? (Simply)
First, be sure there is NO inguinal hernia. Exteriorize testicle down to visceral peritoneum and remove
How is a closed orchidectomy performed? (Simply)
The parietal tunic is left intact
What is 1 advantage and 2 disadvantage of using a closed technique for an orchidectomy?
Advantage: if there is a hernia, less risk and less oozing and swelling
Disadvantage: More difficult, takes longer
Describe the surgical prep involved for an ovariohysterectomy
- Clip with, and then against the direction of hair from the xyphoid to the pubis, and then laterally to the nipples.
- Express the bladder
- Surgical scrub
- Ground drapes
- Laparotomy sheet
Where is the primary incision made in dogs for an ovariohysterectomy? Cats?
Dogs - just caudal to umbilicus
Cats - 2cm caudal to umbilicus
The subcutaneous repair is done using a continuous suture pattern, while the linea and epidermal layers are done using a _______ pattern
In basic terms, what are the steps of an ovariohysterectomy?
1. Locate ovaries
2. Break broad ligament
3. Clamp pedicles
4. Ligate and release pedicles
5. Repeat on other ovary
6. Ligate uterine body and cut out
What is the difference between cutting and tapered suture needles? When are each recommended?
Cutting - cuts a hole and allows material to be pulled through. Will tear through friable tissues.
Tapered - separates tissue fibers and brings suture through, no cut. Used for internal sutures
What is the technicians role in Orthopedic surgery?
Understanding common terminology, equipment and procedures
Give an example of an elective orthopedic surgery and a non-elective surgery
Elective: Cruciate ligament repair
Non-elective: Joint luxations
When should prophylactic antibiotics be used for orthopedic surgery?
If there is severe trauma, contamination or more than one fracture
Name a risk factor that increases a dog's chances of developing Gastric Dilation Volvulus (GDV) (There are 7)
- Deep chest
- Only fed once per day
- Exercise after eating
- Consumptions of large volumes of food or water
- Eating from a raised bowl
- Rotating susceptible patient dorsally (always rotate with feet down)
What are some of the 6 clinical signs of GDV?
- Abdominal pain
- Excessive salivation
- Retching, no vomit
- Distended abdomen
- Respiratory distress
What obvious sign will you see on an abdominal rad in a patient with GDV?
Large gas pockets on rads (compartmentalization)
At what rate are fluids given to a dog with GDV?
What procedure is performed after the GDV reversal surgery to ensure it does not reccur?
Gastropexy -- suture stomach to the abdominal wall
What are the 2 best pre-meds for GDV PROVIDED the patient is not cyanotic?
Hydromorphone or Fentanyl
What induction drug should be avoided in GDV cases as it causes splenic enlargement?
Most pregnant dogs with dystocia are anemic. If the patient's PCV is normal, what does this mean?
She is dehydrated
What 4 emergency drugs are needed for C-section surgery?
Epinephrine, Atropine, Naloxone and Doxapram
Which pre-med shouldnt be used for C-section as it crosses the placental barrier and causes fetal depression and hypotension
Which class of pre-meds should be avoided all together as it causes severe neonate depression?
What is the best induction drug for PLANNED C-section surgery?
Propofol or Alfaxalone
A PLANNED C-section patient should receive an epidural of what?
Lidocaine or Morphine/Bupivicaine mixture
What pre-meds should be used in an EMERGENCY C-Section?
Hydromorphone or Fentanyl + Half dose of Atropine
True or false: During C-section surgery, the patient should be maintained on Iso as deep as possible since it is a painful surgery
False. The patient should be kept as light as possible.
What 3 things should the non-sterile team do for each neonate that passes during C-section?
1. Clamp umbilicus
2. Rub with sterile towel to stimulate breathing
3. Suction nares and nasopharynx to remove any amniotic fluid
What do you do if a neonate isn't breathing after being passed by C-section? If that doesn't work, what else can you try?
Apply 2 drop of Doxapram sublingually. If that doesnt work, give 1 drop Epinephrine sublingually
What is a Celiotomy?
Incision into the abdominal cavity
Exploratory abdominal surgery should only be performed AFTER ____ and/or ____ has been done
What are 3 reasons we may do a Gastrotomy?
Foreign body, hairball, string gut
During anesthesia, what should the capnograph (ETCO2) read during inhalation? Exhalation?
Inhalation: 0 mmHg
Exhalation: 35-45 mm Hg
What is the 'normal' temperature for cats/dogs?
36.1-39.7 degrees C
When should you be concerned about a Respiratory rate getting too low?
If the RPM is less than 8
What is the safe range for Systolic/Diastolic BP during anesthesia?
Systolic - 100-160 mm Hg
DIastolic - 60-90 mm Hg
What is the MINIMUM MAP for proper perfusion?
60 mm Hg