TEST #1 (Chapter 1 notes) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in TEST #1 (Chapter 1 notes) Deck (20):
1

Understanding the physical world

Science is a tool that was invented in order how to understand how the physical world works. Things that are not controversial. There are things the we can and cannot use in a physical world. We are a part of the physical world. We don't know what will be useful

2

Understanding the psychological
world

Understanding how mind works will not improve psychology. Living in a harmony, helping people, understanding their influence on the environment self acceptance and understanding are important.

3

How Do We Know Something?

• You’ve seen/experienced it.
• Someone else has seen/experienced
it.

4

Evaluating other sources

–Bias
(we want to check how trustworthy it is, is it going to benefit someone? does it support certain political views)
–Authority
• Forms of authority
(Parents, Scientists, Government)

5

Can you trust peer review?

Peer review cannot catch all mistakes.

6

Evaluating ourselves

–Bias
Humans want to be right. Being wrong is scary. All of us are in constant battle for potential biases.

7

The Scientific Method

– Objective and systematic observation. We can't trust people because they might get a profit from the false belief.
Conducted by (oft-biased) humans you need to be critical.
– Critical thinking
helps

8

Systematic

consistent, has a certain way of doing things. Says exactly what to do.

9

Objective

totaly factual

10

“in which a person reasons about
relevant evidence to draw a sound or
good conclusion”
- Bensley (2008, p. 128)

bad definition

11

How Do We Know?

• The Scientific Method
– Objective and systematic observation
– “a commitment to test knowledge
through observation and (if possible)
experimentation.”
– Originally developed to study the
physical world

12

The 3 principles of Science

– Determinism
– Discoverability
–Prediction

13

Determinism

There is a reason for everything.

14

Discoverability

– We can uncover these causes with
some degree of confidence

15

Prediction

We can predict if we know causes.

16

Physical sciences versus
Psychological Science

In psychology, there are different reasons for a phenomenon to occur. Psychological phenomena cannot be directly observed. There is no tool for it. In psychology you don't always predict.

17

• Qualities of a scientist

– Curiosity
• Humility, tolerance for ambiguity/uncertainty
• Nullius in Verba ("on the word of no one" or "Take nobody's word for it")
– Freedom from ideology
• Objective, Sources of Ideology
• Qualities of a scientist
– Transparency and honesty
• Ethics, Public knowledge
• Verifiable, Replicable

18

Science and truth

– Tentative truths
(science is a process of revising our beliefs and confidence, not the only way to know the world).
– No hard conclusions
– Constant revision based on
accumulating evidence
–Pursuit of truth rather than knowing truth

19

What good is science?

– Can’t learn hard truths
– Can’t answer all our questions
– Why bother?

20

Science is bottling chaos

• Bottling chaos
– Reductionism
(Science simplifies things)
–Balancing control with generalizability
(some things need to be put in control surroundings to simplify it)