Flashcards in Test 1: Chapter 3,4,5 &6 Deck (44):
What is a chromosome variation?
Sperm and ovum do not have 23 chromosomes each
What is down syndrome?
extra/altered 21st chromosome leading to severe mental retardation and physical malformations
What is Klinefelter's syndrome?
XXY, extra X chromosome in males causing physical variations
What is fragile X syndrome?
A variation in the X chromosome that causes intellectual and learning disabilities and short life span (can happen in males and females)
What is Turner's syndrome?
Missing X in females (0X instead of XX), intellectual disabilities and sexual underdevelopment
What is XYY syndrome?
Causes above average height in males
What is cystic fibrosis?
glandular dysfunction that interferes with mucus production, breathing, digestion. Shortens life span
What is hemophilia?
delayed clotting of blood causing internal and external bleeding
What is Huntington's disease?
CNS deteriorates causing muscle deterioration and mental degradation
What is Phenylketonuria (PKU)?
A metabolic disorder that can cause muscle deterioration if left untreated
What is sickle cell anemia?
blood disorder that limits the oxygen supply of the body
What is spina bifida?
neural tube disorder that causes spine and brain variations
What is Tay Sachs disease?
deceleration of mental and physical development caused by an accumulation of lipids in the nervous system
What is amniocentesis?
amniotic fluid testing
What is ultrasound sonography?
high frequency sound waves produce an image of the fetus
What is chorionic villi sampling?
testing of small sample of the placenta
When do you get an ultrasound for the first time?
What is maternal serum screening?
a blood test that tests for disorders of the fetus, occurs at 14-20 weeks
What is a fetal MRI?
a detailed image of the fetus's organs
What is a noninvasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD)?
Analysis of fetal cells in the mothers blood
How many Canadian couples are infertile?
What are the potential causes of infertility in men?
Low sperm count, immobile sperm, antibodies against sperm
What are the potential causes of infertility in women?
Ovulation problems, Antisperm secretions, blocked fallopian tubes, and endometriosis (tissue build up in uterus)
What occurs during the germinal period?
The zygote is created and it attached to the uterine wall
How long is the germinal period?
conception to 2 weeks
What is the inner layer of cells that later becomes the embryo?
What is the outer layer of cells that later provides nutrients and support for the embryo?
What occurs during the embryonic period?
The zygote turns into an embryo, prenatal life supports develop (placenta, umbilican cord, amnion), organogenesis begins to occur, ectoderm/mesoderm/endoderm differentiate
What does the endoderm develop into?
digestive and respiratory systems
What does the mesoderm develop into?
bones, muscles, circulatory, excretory, and reproductive systems
What does the ectoderm develop into?
nervous system, sensory receptors and skin parts
What is the placenta?
a disk shaped group of tissues in which small blood vessels from the mother and offspring intertwine but do not join
What is the umbilical cord?
a cord containing 2 arteries and 1 vein that connect the baby to the placenta
What is the amnion
A bag or envelope containing clear fluid in which the embryo floats
How long is the embryonic period?
2 weeks to 8 weeks
What is the fetal period and how long does it last?
The growth and development stage, where the organs continue to mature. From 8 weeks to child birth
How early can a baby be born and have a chance at living?
When can you find out the sex of your baby?
What happens if you drink more than 300 mg of caffeine per day when pregnant?
increased risk of miscarriage
What happens if you drink alcohol when pregnant?
fetal alcohol spectrums disorder
What happens if you smoke nicotine when pregnant?
preterm birth, low birth weight, respiratory problems, SIDS ADHD
What happens if you do cocaine or meth when youre pregnant?
low birth weight, developmental and behavioural problems, death
What happens if you smoke weed when ur pregnant?
your baby can be depressed and have lower intelligence