Test 1 (Lectures 1-5) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test 1 (Lectures 1-5) Deck (163):
1

what are domesticated animals

one which has been selectively bred in captivity and thereby modified from its ancestors for use by humans who control the animals breeding and food supply

2

Why did man domesticate animals (6)

-Animals for food
-Animals for clothing
-Animals for religious / ritual functions
-Animals for draft
-Animals as status symbols
-Animals as companions

3

examples of scavengers (3)

pig
dog
duck

4

examples of social parasites (3)

reindeer
sheep
goat

5

examples of crop-robbers (3)

cattle
buffalo
rabbit
goose
elephant

6

examples of pest-destroyers (2)

cat
ferret

7

examples of transporters (3)

horse
donkey
camelids

8

examples of systematically domesticated animals (3)

fowl
hyaena
ostrich
mouse
rat
canary

9

date dog was domesticated and where

10000 BC
china or North America

10

date cat was domesticated and where

7500 BC
cyprus

11

date sheep was domesticated and where

8000 BC
sw asia

12

date goat was domesticated and where

8000 BC
sw asia

13

date horse was domesticated and where

4000 BC
Ukraine

14

date donkey was domesticated and where

4000 BC
Egypt

15

date pig was domesticated and where

8000 BC
China

16

how many terrestrial non carnivores weighing over
100 lbs have been domesticated

14/150
= 9.3%

17

what is important to note about domestication

some individuals in a species, make better candidates for domestication then others

18

what are FEATURES FAVOURING DOMESTICATION IN A WILD SPECIES

•Group Structure
•Sexual Behaviour •Parent-young interaction •Response to Humans

19

what group structure features make animals good candidates for domestication

-Large social groups
- hierarchical structure
-males affiliated with female group
-not territorial

20

what sexual behaviour features make animals good candidates for domestication (3)

-Promiscuous matings
-Male does not have to establish dominance over the female
-Not monogamous

21

what parent young interation features make animals good candidates for domestication (3)

-Precocial (very mature and independent right from birth)
-Defined imprinting period
-Female accepts other infants

22

what response to human features make animals good candidates for domestication (3)

-Short flight distance
-Tolerant to environmental changes

23

what other features make animals good candidates for domestication (3)

-Adaptable
-Unspecialised diet
-Limited agility

24

what do donkeys and onagers have in common (4)

- live in female-young herds - males are territorial
- mate in leks
- are very agile

25

what makes a donkey different from a onager (3)

-Short flight distance
-High environmental tolerance
-High dietary adaptability

26

what makes a onager different from a donkey (3)

-Long flight distance
-Nervous, temperamental, specialized habitat
-Dietary specialist

27

what is the criteria for domestication when it comes to value to humans

-Food
-draft
-hunting

28

what is the criteria for domestication when it comes to diet

- Large herbivores offer substantial energy use (+safety!) advantages over carnivores.

29

what is the criteria for domestication when it comes to growth

-Rapidly reach their desired size.

30

what is the criteria for domestication when it comes to breeding

Must breed in captivity.

31

what is the criteria for domestication when it comes to calmness

Little tendency to panic when startled/

32

what is the criteria for domestication when it comes to disposition

Amenable and tractable

33

what is the criteria for domestication when it comes to sociability

A social structure and hierarchy favors domestication.

34

what are 4 PRINCIPAL CHARACTERISTICS that a domestic animal in its most developed form exhibit

1. Its breeding is under human control.
2. It provides a product or service useful to man.
3. It is tame.
4. It has been selected away from the wild type.”

35

what criteria do zoo animals meet

just 1

1. Its breeding is under human control.

36

what criteria do working elephants fall under

2 and 3

2. It provides a product or service useful to man.
3. It is tame.

37

what parallel changes have fully domesticated mammals gone through (6)

-Increased colour variability
-Paedomorphosis
-Brain reduction
-Docility
-Earlier maturation

38

who was D.K. Belyaev

Bred silver foxes (Vulpes vulpes) at the Institute of Cytology and Genetics in Novosibirsk, western Siberia, Russia

39

what is PAEDOMORPHOSIS

Retention of juvenile characters into the adult stage

40

give an example of PAEDOMORPHOSIS in cats and dogs

-barking in dogs
-“kneading” in cats

41

give an example of PAEDOMORPHOSIS in cattle

shorter, less in-turned horns

42

what is important to note about brain reduction in domestic species versus their wild ancestors

Domestic animals have smaller brains 40% less than their wild ancestors

43

why do domestic animal brains shrink

this is because their wild abilities are not needed, so it shrinks

44

what order are sensory centres reduced

1. optic
2. acoustic
3. olfactory

45

what is important to note about docility

optic-acoustic- olfactory sensory centers reduced which decreases their ability to investigate

46

how does aggressiveness change in domesticated animals

reduced by 29%

47

what is early maturation

Grow faster and mature faster (just physiological)

48

what is true when it comes to size between domestic and wild animals

Most domestic species are smaller than their wild relatives (except for some specialized breeds)

49

Zeuners 6 steps in the domestication of a species

1. Planned development
2. Elimination of the wild species as competitors
3. Size changes
4. Loose ties: species is essentially wild
5. Captivity: restriction of contacts with wild population
6. Intentional breeding for tractability

50

what is ethology

It is the study of animal behaviour

51

name 4 classical animal behaviourists

Charles Darwin
Niko Tinbergen
Konrad Lorenz
Karl von Frisch

52

what did Konrad Lorenz discover

imprinting

53

what is imprinting

-imprinting is any kind of phase-sensitive learning
-learning occurring at a particular age or a particular life stage
- it is rapid and apparently independent of the consequences of behavior

54

what dis Charles Darwin discover

Theory of Natural Selection

55

what are the 3 parts of the theory of natural selection

-Variation (Genotype/phenotype)
-Heredity
-Differential Reproduction

56

what is causation

what is the immediate or short term cause for the behaviour

57

what is ontogeny

how does a particular behaviour develop or change throughout the life span of the animal

58

what is evolution

how does behaviour change as species evolve and are subjected to natural (or artificial)
selection

59

what is function

what role does the behaviour play in the adaptation of the animal to its environment

60

how to remember the ways in which animals behave (ABCDEF)

A – animal
B – behavior
C – causation
D – development (Ontogeny)
E – evolution
F – function

61

what are the 2 Levels of Analysis in the Study of Behaviour

proximate causes
ultimate causes

62

what are 2 types of proximate causes

-Genetic- developmental mechanisms
-Sensory-motor mechanisms

63

what are Genetic- developmental mechanisms

-Effects of heredity on behaviour
-Development of sensory-motor systems via gene-environment interactions.

64

what are sensory-motor mechanisms

-Nervous systems, Hormone systems, Skeletal-muscular systems

65

what does the nervous system do

for the detection of environmental stimuli.

66

what does the hormone system do

for adjusting responsiveness to environmental stimuli.

67

what does the skeletal-muscular system do

for carrying out responses.

68

what are 2 ultimate causes

historical
selective processes

69

what does historical ultimate causes mean

-Historical pathways leading to a current behavioural trait.
-Events occurring over evolution from the origin of the trait to the present.

70

what is the selective processes

- Past + current usefulness of the behaviour in promoting lifetime reproductive success

71

what is animal psychology (3)

-Studies performed in animal learning
-Form general laws of behaviour
-Studies mostly conducted on lab species under controlled conditions.

72

who is E.L Thorndike and what is his theory

Law of effect

73

what does the law of effect state

learning occurs if the response has some effect upon the environment

74

what happens if that response is pleasant

If the effect of the response is pleasant, then the behaviour will be strengthened

75

what happens if that response is unpleasant

if the effect on the environment is unpleasant then the behaviour will be weakened

76

who is Ivan pavlov

-Russian scientist who won the Nobel Peace Prize
-was a physiologist who studied the higher nervous activity of dogs

77

what is Contemporary Animal Behaviour

input from many different disciplines and combines classical ethology with animal psychology

78

name 3 examples of contemporary animal behaviour

-Zoology
-Entomology
-Behavioural Ecology
-Wildlife Biology
-Animal Science
-Veterinary Medicine

79

what is applied animal behaviour

It is the application of the body of knowledge about behaviour to practical problems and situations.

80

name 3 elements of behaviour

-Reflexes
-Kineses
-Taxes

81

what are reflexes

Reflexes are the response is involuntary, predictable and immediate, involving a reaction to a stimulus, but not directional movement

82

what is an example of reflexes

An example would be when you hear a sound you turn your head the direction you think you hear it coming from.

83

what is kineses

a random, non-directed movement as a response to environment stimuli (light temperature moisture)

84

what does kineses involve

locomotor movement

85

example of kineses

an animal hears a loud sound and begins to run away

86

what is taxes

Directed movements relative to some detectable factor, usually with repeated evaluation or testing of the factor.

87

what is Photoaxis

attraction to light

88

what is geotax

oriented movement towards or away from a gravitational force

89

what is chemotaxis

Chemotaxis is the movement in response to a chemical stimulus

90

what is hydrotaxis

the response of an organism or cell to the presence of water or moisture, usually detected as movement

91

what is motivation

an animals drive or desire to perform or act a behavior

92

what is arousal

-Deprivation of a needed resource
-a result of external stimuli or stress factors as well as internal physiology.

93

what is unwell

biological foundations that lie at the very epicenter of the study of both communication and signification in the human animal

94

what else does unwelt mean

self centred world

95

what do we assume animals are

-Active rather than passive
-Goal seeking and exploratory in their actions
-Cognitive

96

what does cognitive mean

awareness extends beyond the immediate environment

97

what promotes frustration

Situation in which events occur which are unpredicted or unexpected

98

what makes an animal frustrated

results when an animal is unable to attain a goal and the appetitive behaviour is repeated at length

99

what is displacement behaviour

Displacement behaviour usually occurs when an animal is torn between two conflicting drives, such as fear and aggre

100

what is redirecting

Behaviour that is related to a stimulus, but is misdirected

101

what is an example of redirecting

an attack upon an inanimate object by an animal that cannot or dare not attack another animal that is the true target of its aggression

102

what are vacuum behaviours

are innate, fixed action patterns of animal behaviour that are performed in the absence of the external stimuli (releaser) that normally elicit them

103

what do vacuum behaviours show

shows that a key stimulus is not always needed to produce an activity

104

what are stimuli

Stimuli are internal or external factors which elicit or trigger behaviour

105

how is behaviour triggered

by a number of stimuli working together

106

name 3 stimuli

visual
auditory
olfactory (smell)

107

what is sign stimuli

when particular properties within a stimulus complex can be identified as the sole trigger response

108

what is the strength of a stumble referred to

value

109

what do most stimuli do

cause a behaviour to occur and they therefore function as ‘releasers’ of this behaviour

110

what are primers

stimuli that may trigger long term physiological behaviours

111

what are 7 essential behaviours

-REPRODUCTIVE
-DEVELOPMENTAL
-FORAGING & ELIMINATIVE
-AGONISTIC
-PREDATOR-PREY
-TERRITORIAL
-SELF MAINTENANCE

112

what is learning

an adaptive change in behaviour resulting from experience

113

learned behaviours can be _____, _____, _____.

Acquired
Altered
Eliminated

114

what is a super crucial time for learning

8-10 weeks

115

what are 3 categories of learning

-Exploratory / Investigative
-Imitation
-Conditioning

116

who came up with classical conditioning

Pavlovian

117

in pavlov's theory what is the unconditioned stimulus

meat powder

118

what does the unconditioned stimulus produce in his theroy

Unconditioned Response which is Salivation

119

what is the neutral stimuli

a bell rang immediately prior to introduction of meat powder

120

how does this theory work

if the bell is presented with the meat powder repeatedly salvation will become a conditioned response so that even when you take away the meat powder the dog will still salivate

121

what 2 things can you use conditioned stimuli as

-as a reinforcer
-as a command

122

what is extinction

Repeated presentation of a conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus which leads to gradual weakening and eventual disappearance of the conditioned response.
EX. the bell without the meat powder

123

what is the law of effect

A behaviour changes in form and/or frequency depending on the consequences it produces

124

if the behaviour leads to a pleasant consequence what happens to the behaviour

it is strengthened

125

if the behaviour leads to a unpleasant consequence what happens to the behaviour

it is diminished

126

what is reinforcement

Any stimulus change that increases the probability of the behaviour preceding it.

127

what is punishment

Any stimulus change that reduces the probability of the behaviour preceding it.

128

what is positive reinforcement or punishment

A stimulus is added to the situation
EX. food or shock

129

what is negative reinforcement or punishment

A stimulus is removed from the situation
EX. termination of shock or withholding food

130

2 best methods for training

-Positive reinforcement
-Negative Punishment

131

what is a positive punisher

a choke or prong collar

132

what is a negative punishment

the removal of something good

133

what are primary appetitive reinforcers

-food
-play
-social interaction

134

what are secondary appetitive reinforcers

- verbal praise

135

what are primary aversive reinforcers

- pain
- surprise/shock
- social isolation
- fear

136

what are secondary appetitive reinforcers

- verbal reprimands
- shock collars
- freedom fence

137

what is prompting and fading

The elicitation of a behaviour with a cue and rewarding the desired response

138

what is the key to prompting and fading

-On subsequent trials, the intensity of the cue is progressively being reduced
-Rewarding a spontaneous behaviour

139

what is shaping

A naturally occurring behaviour which resembles most closely the desired behaviour, or a prompted behaviour, is selected and reinforced.

140

give an example of shaping

a puppy sits crookedly you reward that behaviour and slowly , you become more and more demanding until you only reward correct straight sitting.

141

what is a continuous schedule of reinforcement

Means that during learning every correct response should be rewarded

142

what does continuous schedule of reinforcement result in

The result of this will be a rapid learned response

143

what is important to note about extinction

Extinction is an active process (unlike forgetting) in which responses are made but not reinforced.

144

what is an intermittent schedule of enforcement

when a behaviour is well learned not every correct response is rewarded

145

what does a intermittent schedule of reinforcement help prevent

extinction

146

what is over learning

The continued conditioning of responses which the animal already accomplishes perfectly

147

how is over learning beneficial (2)

- resistance to extinction
- consistent response even in distracting/stressful environment

148

what dogs are known for over learning

police and military dogs

149

+R

add good stuff

150

-P

end good stuff

151

+P

add bad stuff

152

-R

end bad stuff

153

4 classical conditioning techniques

Habituation
Counter-conditioning
Systematic desensitization
Flooding

154

what is habituation

The response of an animal to a novel, neutral stimulus weakens due to repetitious exposure to the stimulus.

155

what is important to note about habituation

-active learning process
-stimulus specific

156

what happens if the stumble isn't presented for a period of time

this results in spontaneous recovery of the response

157

what is an example of something a dog may habituate to

everyday noises such as the fridge coming on , the TV or radio , or traffic noise

158

what is sensitization

Is a classical conditioning technique that is the opposite of habituation

159

what happens in the case of sensitization

the animal’s negative response increases after repeated exposure to a stimulus

160

what is counter conditioning

A desirable behaviour is trained to replace an unwanted behaviour

161

what is systematic desensitization

gradual introduction of a fear evoking – but harmless - stimulus

162

what is flooding

prolonged exposure to full intensity fear evoking – but harmless - stimulus

163

does flooding work

Flooding typically doesn’t work in animals.