Test #1 Review Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test #1 Review Deck (66):
1

Basic characteristics of Viruses

-microscopic/non-cellular infectious particle
-attack organisms in every kingdom
-contain either DNA or RNA wrapped in protein layers
-lack cellular organization and independent metabolisms

2

Basic Shapes Of BACTERIA

Cocci - round in shape
Bacilli - rod-shaped
Spirilli - corkscrew shaped

3

Basic characteristics of ARCHAEAN BACTERIA

-live in non-inhabitable environments like hot guisers or acidic waters.
-some live where there is no oxygen and release a methane gas as a by-product of metabolism
-have unique plasma membrane chemistry that separates them from bacteria and eukarya

4

Antibiotics

Work by either killing bacteria or stopping their reproduction. Because of misuse and over-prescription, the effectiveness of antibiotics has gone down and antibiotic-resistant bacteria are now an issue!

5

Helpful characteristics of Bacteria

-many are in the human body and carry out helpful functions
-produce antibiotics as a by-product of metabolism
-fermentation (cheese, alcohol)

6

Harmful Characteristics of Bacteria

Fever, cholera, blood clots

7

Exotoxin

a poison that an organism releases into its surroundings

8

Endotoxin

a component of the bacterial cell wall that triggers illness

9

Pathogens

Organisms that cause disease in other organisms

10

Bio-remediation

the use of organisms to clean up environmental pollution

11

Autotrophs

Do not consume organic matter (they make their own food)

12

Heterotrophs

Depend on organic matter for energy (they eat organic matter for energy)

13

Chemosynthetic vs Photosynthetic

Chemosynthetic = depend on organic matter to convert into energy
Photosynthetic = photosynthesize their food for energy (self-sufficient)

14

Cell Theory

Every living organism is composed of 1 or more cells
All cells living today came from a pre-existing cell

15

4 Common characteristics of cells

Cell (Plasma) Membrane - a series of molecules that separates the cell from its environment
DNA - hereditary information passed from one generation to the next
Cytoplasm - Mostly water and various suspended structures (organelles) that produce functions for the cell
Ribosomes - organelles that function in the production of protein

16

Basic Characteristics of Prokaryotic Cells

No nucleus
Much smaller than Eukaryotic cells
Most have a cell wall
Less complex internal compartments

17

Basic Characteristics of Eukaryotic Cells

Larger and more complex internally than Prokaryotic
Contain Organelles
Cell wall in some groups (except animals)
Has a nucleus

18

Organelles in Eukaryotic Cells and their function

Endoplasmic Reticulum - produces lipids and proteins
Transport Vesicle - moves lipids, proteins and carbs between cellular compartments
Golgi Apparatus - directs proteins and lipids produced by the ER to their final destination
Lysosomes - Recycling and waste removal (they break down macromolocules)
Vacuoles - Store water
Mitochondria - produces chemical energy from food

19

Microtubules (Cytoskeleton)

Rigid hollow cylinders of protein used for:
positioning organelles
moving transport vesicles and other organelles
Generating force to propel the cell

20

Intermediate Filaments (Cytoskeleton)

Ropelike cables of protein that provide reinforcement to the cell

21

Microfilaments (Cytoskeleton)

Thin flexible proteins that create cell shape and generate crawling movement in some cells

22

Gametes

the nuclei of two different special cells

23

Plankton

free floating aquatic organisms that drift in the current

24

Phytoplankton

Photosynthetic plankton (produce their own food)

25

Zooplankton

Non-photosynthetic plankton

26

Bioluminescent

they produce light without heat by chemical reaction

27

Mixotrophs (protista)

Obtain energy from a variety of ways

28

Basic characteristics of all PLANTS

Multicellular autotrophs
carry our photosynthesis
can reproduce both asexually and sexually

29

Cuticle

waxy element that covers above ground parts in plants and holds moisture in

30

Stomata

pores that open and close when open they enable carbon dioxide needed for photosynthesis to enter the leaves

31

Two systems in plants

Shoot system - mainly above ground
Root system - mainly below ground

32

Cellulose and Lignin

two molecules unique to plants which enable the large size of plants

33

Xylem

A vascular tissue that transports water and nutrients to the plant cell

34

Phloem

A vascular system that transports food molecules to the plant cells

35

Pollen

A microscopic structure that contains sperm cells

36

Seed

is made up of plant embryo and a supply of food encased in a protective seed coat

37

Angiosperms

Flowering plants
most dominant diverse group
Flowers facilitate sexual reproduction by attracting pollinators
Flower is the sex organ of a flowering plant

38

4 parts of the flower

Sepal - usually green and leaflike protect the bud of the flower
Petal - visually attract pollinators
Stamen - The male reproductive organ in which pollen is produced
Carpel - The female structure which contains the ovary the ovary matures into fruit

39

Fruit

A mature ovary with seeds inside

40

Fruit vs vegetable

Fruits bear seeds vegetables do not
Fruit (watermelon, mango, kiwi)
Vegetable (Brocolli, Kale)

41

Monocots

leaves are long and narrow
Veins are parallel to the long axis
Flower parts are in multiples of 3
Root system is fibrous
stems are herbaceous (green and soft)
EX: Lillies, Orchids

42

Dicot

Leaves are short and broad
Veins are branched
Flower parts are in multiples of 4 or 5
Stems are herbaceous early on then become woody
Root system is taproot (one large root)

43

Fungi

More closely related to humans than plants
Absorbative heterotrophs - digest organic material outside the body and absorb the released molecules

44

3 main groups of Fungi

Zygomycetes - molds
Basidiomycetes - mushrooms
Ascomycetes - truffles

45

Basic body characteristics of FUNGI

Some fungi are unicellular
all unicellular fungi are called yeast
Most fungi are multicellular and their body is made up of filaments called hyphae

46

Budding

producing genetically identical offspring

47

Fragmentation

Pieces of mycelium break off and continue to grow

48

Beneficial things about FUNGI

provide us with pharmaceuticals like penicillin
beer, cheese and other things are produced by fungi

49

Obligate

if separated both organisms will be seriously weakened or not survive

50

Basic characteristics of animals

are multicellular
lack a cell wall
are ingestive heterotrophs
all animals are consumers some are decomposers
exhibit locomotion
develop from a single fertilized egg (zygote)

51

Notochord

a strong flexible bar of tissue in the back

52

Vertebrates

Chordates that possess a rigid backbone made of cartilage or bone

53

Segmentation

repetition of body parts in the body

54

Dependent Variable / Independent Variable examples

Dep Variable = Reaction Time
Ind Variable = Amount of caffeine consumed

55

Dependent Variable

The variable that gets measured as an outcome

56

Independent Variable

the variable that gets deliberately manipulated

57

Radial symmetry examples

Cnidarians

58

Monotreme mammal

non-placental egg laying

59

Marsupial mammal

non-placental young develop in a pouch

60

Eutharian mammal

Placental development takes place internally

61

Arthropods

insects

62

Annelids

earthworms

63

Vertebrates

fish

64

Cnidarians

Jellyfish

65

Echinoderm

Sea Star

66

Mollusks

Octopus, Clams