Flashcards in test #13 4.1 Deck (160)
pleuritic pain 2-4 days post-MI
pleuritic (changes w/ cough & swallowing, radiating to neck). fibrinous or serofibrinous early-onset pericarditis. 10-20% fever. rxn to transmural necrosis. short-lived, rx: aspirin
pericarditis vs. myocardial ischemia pain
pericarditis: pleuritic & sharp, changes w/ cough. MI: constant, substernal, crushing
diffuse pericardial inflammation (& lung pleura) due to autoimmune reaction to necrotic tissue. 1 wk-months post MI (fewer than 4%). fever, pleuritis, leukocytosis, pericardial friction rub, chest radiograph evidence of new pericardial / pleural effusions. autoimmune polyserositis. rx: aspirin, NSAID, glucocorticoids
viral pericarditis usu follows..
upper respiratory infection.
3 major symptoms of klinefelter 47 XXY
(1) primary testicular failure: (hyalinization and fibrosis of seminiferous tubules) ---> subsequent lack of testosterone.
(2) eunuchoid body habitus: due to testosterone deficiency: tall w/ gynecomastia. lack body hair.
(3) cognitive symptoms: mild retardation, but mostly normal.
arachnodactyl, scoliosis, and aortic root dilation
Marfan. inherited defect of extracellular matrix protein: fibrillin
short stature, hypotonia, obesity.
prader-willi. microdeletion on chromosome 15 (inherited from fatheR). mental retardation.
exact direction of translocation in CML. karyotype.
t(9,22). fusion gene on shortened 22. BCR gene on 22 to ABL gene on 9. karyotype: long 9
autosomal recessive mutation in gene coding for dynein. male infertility, recurrent sinusitis, bronchiectasis. situs inversus.
karyotype analysis of fragile X syndrome
karyotype of cells cultured in folate-deficient medium, discontinuity of staining on the long-arm of X chromosome.
chromosome of sickle cell anemia
1 gram of hemoglobin holds how much oxygen?
1.34ml oxygen / 100ml blood
PaO2 100 = how much oxygen dissolved?
0.3ml oxygen dissolved / 100ml blood
cyanide intoxication leads to what blood gas finding
inhibition of cytochrome C, failure of electron transport chain & aerobic metabolism. SaO2 of venous blood INCREASES (oxygen cannot unload)
what 3 factors affect total oxygen content of blood
(1) hemoglobin concentration (2) oxygen saturation of hemoglobin (SaO2) (3) partial pressure of xygen dissolved in blood (PaO2)
bacterial (i.e. recurrent otitis media), viral (bronchiolitis), and fungal (candidiasis) w/ poor growth & thymic hypoplasia (absent thymic shadow).
absent thymic shadow can mean.. (2)
SCID or DiGeorge (very uncommon)
X-linked, boys, 6 months after passive immunity passes. BTK gene. insufficient production of mature B cells
common variable immunodeficiency
defect in B cell maturation. many causes.
Ab abnormalities w/ Wiskot-Aldrich
low to normal IgG and IgM. increased IgE and IgA
4 basic payment methods (most contracts between health insurance plans & physicians)
capitation, fee-for-service, discounted fee-for-service, salary
paid fixed amount per enrollee (not per service). fixed budget aloocated: incentives to contain costs. motivated to catch illness early (preventative care) so less tests needed as patient ages.
paid fixed amount for every service & diagnostic test. face little financial risk, enticed to increase visits per patient and services per visit.
similar to FFS, but are reimbursed a discounted price. physician will be more conservative when ordering tests / providing services
fixed amount, pay not tied to service or enrollee. no financial risk. no financial incentive to change treatment patterns.
HMO (health maintenance organization insurance plans) tend to use... Preferred provider organization insurance plans tend to use.. (payment plans)
HMO: capacitation. PPO: FFS or discounted FFS
latency in epidemiological studies
time elapsed from exposure to clinically apparent disease. short: infectious disease. long: heart disease/cancer.
or, exposure to risk modifiers occur significant time before effect on disease process. or must occur continuously over extended period before disease outcome is affected.
idiopathic hirsuitism. rx: (3)
(1) increased conversion of testosterone to DHT (5-alpha-reductase) or (2) increased sensitivity of hair follicles to DHT. rx: spironolactone, flutamide (testosterone receptor antagonist), finasteride (5-alpha-reductase inhibitor)
spironolactone on hirtsuitism
anti-adrogenic properties. block androgen receptors at hair follicles & decreases testosterone production.