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Flashcards in Test 2 Deck (128):
1

No mating required
Doesn't generate genetic diversity

Asexual reproduction

2

In asexual reproduction, offspring are _______ _______, which is good for ______ ________.

genetically identical; stable conditions

3

3 common methods of asexual reproduction are:

Budding
Regeneration
Parthenogenesis

4

Regeneration is ________ followed by ______.

fragmentation; regeneration

5

Parthenogenesis is reproduction using ______ _____.

unfertilized eggs

6

Development from ______ ______ may determine _____.

unfertilized eggs; sex

7

______ behavior may still be observed. Behavior depends on ______ ______.
Example: whiptail lizards

Sexual; hormone levels

8

Sexual reproduction in animals goes in three steps, which includes:

Gametogenesis
Mating/spawning
Fertilization

9

Production of gametes (egg and sperm) via meiosis

Gametogenesis

10

Mating/spawning gets_____ in the same _____.

gametes; vicinity (or place)

11

Gametes fuse during ______.

fertilization

12

Males produce ____ sperm from one cell.

four

13

Females produce ____ egg from one cell.

one

14

1) Recognition
2) Sperm reaches plasma membrane (digests itself through)
3) Membranes fuse
4) Egg blocks entry of more sperm (called block to polyspermy)
5) Nuclei fuses and becomes a zygote

Fertilization process

15

Fertilization can occur _____ or _____.

internally; externally

16

Lots of gametes
Aquatic environment
Sessile (non-motile) animals

External fertilization

17

Fewer gametes
Motile animals
*Some sessile animals

Internal fertilization

18

Some animals can function as ______ and _______.

male; female

19

Separate sexes (male and female)

Dioecious

20

Organism is both male and female

Monoecious

21

When one organism has both sexes

Hermaphroditic

22

Simultaneous hermaphrodites don't ____ ______.

self fertilize

23

Sequential hermaphrodites ______ _______.

switch sex

24

The testes _____ _______.

produce sperm

25

Stores sperm here and they also mature here

Epididymis

26

The ____ _______ leads to the urethra.

vas deferens

27

Seminal vesicles, the prostate gland, and the bulbourethral gland ____ _____.

secrete fluids

28

Spermatogenesis happens in ______ _______.

seminiferous tubules

29

Leydig cells are also known as _______ cells. They are between _____ and produce ________.

interstitial; tubules; testosterone

30

Sertoli cells are in _____ _____ and provide ______ _____ ______ ______.

tubule walls; nutrients for developing sperm

31

GnRH

Gonadotropin releasing hormone

32

GnRH is released by the ______. It also goes to the ______ ______ (anterior pituitary gland) and produces ____ and _____.

hypothalamus; endocrine gland; LH; FSH

33

LH goes to ___ ____.

leydig cells

34

LH

Luteinizing hormone

35

FSH goes to _____ _____ to _____ _____.

sertoli cells; stimulate spermatogenesis

36

FSH

Follicle stimulating hormone

37

Testosterone stimulates ____ _____ and has multiple functions.

sertoli cells

38

LH and FSH are released by the _____ _____ _____.

anterior pituitary gland

39

Ovary
Fallopian tube
Uterus

Female reproductive system

40

LH and FSH are _____ ____.

tropic hormones

41

The uterus consists of the _____.

Endometrium

42

The fallopian tube consists of the _____, ____ _____ and it is where ______ _____.

oviduct; uterine tube; fertilization occurs

43

Blastocyst

Ball of cells

44

_______ implant in the _______.

Blastocysts; endometrium

45

1) Primary oocytes present
2) Primary oocytes develop
- Surrounded by follicular (support) cells
- Entire structure is follicle
3) Only one oocyte develops (is dominant)
4) Ovulation occurs
5) Follicle forms corpus luteum
- Secretes estrogen (estradiol) and progesterone
6) Corpus luteum degenerate if there is no fertilization

The Ovarian Cycle

46

The ______ ______ parallels the _____ _______.

uterine cycle; ovarian cycle

47

_____ days into the ovarian cycle the _____ starts to develop due to the increase in ______.

5; endometrium; estrogen

48

The endometrium is fully developed ___ days after ovulation.

5

49

Menstruation begins ________ days after ovulation and _______ decreases.

9-14; progesterone

50

The ovaries respond to _____ and _____.

FSH; LH

51

The ovaries produce _____ for endometrial development.

estrogen

52

Ovulation is triggered by an _____ surge.

LH

53

If pregnancy occurs the ____ ____ stays in tact.

corpus luteum

54

After the ovarian cycle the ___ ___ is all that's left of the follicle and becomes an ____ gland that secretes _____ and _____.

corpus luteum; endocrine; estrogen; progesterone

55

In the event that there is no fertilization, the _______ ______ degrades, progesterone levels ____, and the ______ sloughs off.

corpus luteum; decrease, endometrium

56

hCG

Human chorionic gonadotropin

57

If pregnancy occurs hCG is produced by the ______ and keeps the corpus luteum _____.

blastocyst; functional

58

If hCG is being produced, estrogen and progesterone levels are ______ to prevent menstruation.

high

59

Negative feedback will produce _____ and ____ during the uterine and ovarian cycles.

GnRH; LH/FSH

60

The _____ takes over the _____ _____ job at the end of the 1st trimester and begins producing estrogen and progesterone.

placenta; corpus luteum's

61

The estrogen: progesterone ratio triggers ______.

birth

62

Nervous tissue becomes concentrated toward one end of an organism and eventually produces a head region with sensory organs

Cephalization

63

The ____ ____ controls simple behaviors like contraction and relaxation.

nerve net

64

Neurons
Excitable
Produce and conduct signals
- Action potentials

Nerve cells

65

Glia (neuroglia)
Support cells

Glial cells

66

Dendrites

Receive incoming signals

67

_____ and ______ make up a nerve.

Neurons; axons

68

The integrating center where action potential begins; sort of the "neck" of the neuron

Axon hillock

69

Signals go through the ____ ____ and the the axon hillock.

cell body

70

The synapse (or synaptic clept) is at the ______ of the neuron.

bottom

71

Action potentials travel down the ____ and end at the ____ ____.

axon; axon terminal

72

Carry command signals to muscles and glands. These include physiological and behavioral commands.

Efferent neurons

73

Sensory neurons
Pick up information from the outside
Carry information to the Central Nervous System

Afferent neurons

74

Oligodendrocytes act as ____.

insulation

75

Connect afferent and efferent neurons
Are in the CNS

Interneurons

76

In the PNS
Wrap around axons
Produce myelin

Schwann cells

77

In the CNS
Wrap around the axon
Produce myelin

Oligodendrocytes

78

Release glycogen and neurotransmitters
Involved with the blood-brain barrier and blood flow

Astrocytes

79

Astrocytes look like _____ and are a type of ____ cell.

stars; glial

80

Oxytocin is produced by ____ of the hypothalamus and is released in the _____ _______.

neurons; posterior pituitary

81

Protects the brain from toxic chemicals in the blood

Blood-brain barrier

82

Cell membranes have a ______ ______ which is measured in _____.

membrane potential; volts

83

The difference in electrical potential across a membrane
When a neuron is resting/not producing any action potentials

Resting membrane potential

84

The electrical concepts that explain how neurons work
Driving force behind current
Causes electrically charged particles to move between two points

Voltage

85

Pumps generate _____ _______.

Membrane potentials

86

Action potential

Sudden, transient, large changes in membrane potential

87

Resting potential

No action potential

88

All or none response
Change in membrane potential
When reached, an action potential will be produced
HOW MUCH CHANGE IS NEEDED TO SEE A REACTION

Threshold

89

Membrane potential is becoming less negative (or positive)

Depolarization

90

Resting potential is overshot

Hyperpolarization

91

When action potentials jump from node to node this is called a _____ ______.

saltatory conduction

92

Vertebrate nervous systems consist of the ____, ______ _______, and ______ ______ ______.

brain; spinal cord; peripheral nervous system

93

Most invertebrates have a _____ ____ ____, which consists of the _____ and ____ _____.

central nervous system; brain; spinal cord

94

Afferent sends info to CNS
Efferent sends info from CNS

Peripheral nervous system

95

Function:
Complex behaviors, learning, and memory

Cerebrum

96

Function:
Integrate sensory motor information (fine-tune movement)
Motor coordination, equilibrium, and posture

Cerebellum

97

Function:
Basic physiological functions
- Regulate respiratory and cardiac functions

Brain stem

98

Function:
Sense of smell

Olfactory lobe

99

Function:
Conversion of afferent information into efferent without involving the brain

Spinal reflex

100

Function:
Simple
Includes two neurons

Monosynaptic pathway

101

Function:
More complex
Involves internuerons
Three or more neurons

Polysnaptic pathway

102

The divisions of the PNS:

Autonomic
Somatic
(Nervous systems)

103

Controls involuntary functions like breathing and heartbeat
Two divisions:
- Sympathetic (fight or flight response)
- Parasympathetic (rest and digest response)

Autonomic nervous system

104

Voluntary control of muscles

Somatic nervous system

105

Ligand gated channels
Binds acetylcholine
Opens ion channels

Nicotonic receptors

106

Use sensory receptor cells

Sensory systems

107

Sensors or receptors
Convert stimuli into neuronal signals
- Goes to the CNS for processing
All senses have similar pathways

Parts of the sensory system

108

1) Recieve _______
2) Signal _______
3) Signal is _______
4) Signal is sent to the ________ center (brain)
5) _______ of the signal occurs in the ________

signal; transduction; amplified; integrating; Perception

109

Chemoreceptors
Mechanoreceptors
Photoreceptors
Electroreceptors
Magnetoreceptors
Thermoreceptors

Classification of sensory receptors

110

Chemicals
Helps with taste, pH, blood oxygen levels, etc.

Chemoreceptors

111

Physical/mechanical
Helps with touch, hearing, and blood pressure

Mechanoreceptors

112

Light waves
Helps with vision

Photoreceptors

113

Electric field
Helps to generate and detect electric fields

Electroreceptors

114

Magnetic field
Helps animals with migration and movement

Magnetoreceptors

115

Help sense temperature

Thermoreceptors

116

Cells can have ______ or _______ receptors.

ionotropic; metabotropic

117

Deals with ion channels or direct opening of ion channels

Ionotropic rceptors

118

Influences ion channels indirectly through G proteins and second messengers

Metabotropic receptors

119

Sense of smell

Olfaction

120

Olfaction uses ________. Vertebrates have ______ in _____ tissue of the nasal cavity.

chemoreceptors; neurons; epithilial

121

Olfaction:
1) _______ molecules bind to receptors on ______ ______ (neurons)
- Metabotropic receptors involved
2) Receptor cell produces ____ _____
3) Neurotransmitter released to _____ _______ to neurons in ____ ______

Odorant; receptor cells; action potential; pass information; olfactory bulb

122

What happens during prolonged simulus?

Adaptation, sensory cells give smaller and smaller responses

123

Sense of taste

Gustation

124

Tastebuds are _______ clusters.

chemoreceptor

125

Taste buds are on the _____ of the ______ in humans.

papilla; tongue

126

Tastebuds have _____ _____ not neurons. They also have microvilli with ____ ______.

sensory cells; receptor proteins

127

Sensory cells release ______ which stimulate ______ _____, producing _____ ____.

neurotransmitters; sensory neurons; action potential

128

Sweet, salty, bitter, sour, and umami (savory flavors).

The tastes our tastebuds can taste