Flashcards in Test 2 Deck (128):
No mating required
Doesn't generate genetic diversity
In asexual reproduction, offspring are _______ _______, which is good for ______ ________.
genetically identical; stable conditions
3 common methods of asexual reproduction are:
Regeneration is ________ followed by ______.
Parthenogenesis is reproduction using ______ _____.
Development from ______ ______ may determine _____.
unfertilized eggs; sex
______ behavior may still be observed. Behavior depends on ______ ______.
Example: whiptail lizards
Sexual; hormone levels
Sexual reproduction in animals goes in three steps, which includes:
Production of gametes (egg and sperm) via meiosis
Mating/spawning gets_____ in the same _____.
gametes; vicinity (or place)
Gametes fuse during ______.
Males produce ____ sperm from one cell.
Females produce ____ egg from one cell.
2) Sperm reaches plasma membrane (digests itself through)
3) Membranes fuse
4) Egg blocks entry of more sperm (called block to polyspermy)
5) Nuclei fuses and becomes a zygote
Fertilization can occur _____ or _____.
Lots of gametes
Sessile (non-motile) animals
*Some sessile animals
Some animals can function as ______ and _______.
Separate sexes (male and female)
Organism is both male and female
When one organism has both sexes
Simultaneous hermaphrodites don't ____ ______.
Sequential hermaphrodites ______ _______.
The testes _____ _______.
Stores sperm here and they also mature here
The ____ _______ leads to the urethra.
Seminal vesicles, the prostate gland, and the bulbourethral gland ____ _____.
Spermatogenesis happens in ______ _______.
Leydig cells are also known as _______ cells. They are between _____ and produce ________.
interstitial; tubules; testosterone
Sertoli cells are in _____ _____ and provide ______ _____ ______ ______.
tubule walls; nutrients for developing sperm
Gonadotropin releasing hormone
GnRH is released by the ______. It also goes to the ______ ______ (anterior pituitary gland) and produces ____ and _____.
hypothalamus; endocrine gland; LH; FSH
LH goes to ___ ____.
FSH goes to _____ _____ to _____ _____.
sertoli cells; stimulate spermatogenesis
Follicle stimulating hormone
Testosterone stimulates ____ _____ and has multiple functions.
LH and FSH are released by the _____ _____ _____.
anterior pituitary gland
Female reproductive system
LH and FSH are _____ ____.
The uterus consists of the _____.
The fallopian tube consists of the _____, ____ _____ and it is where ______ _____.
oviduct; uterine tube; fertilization occurs
Ball of cells
_______ implant in the _______.
1) Primary oocytes present
2) Primary oocytes develop
- Surrounded by follicular (support) cells
- Entire structure is follicle
3) Only one oocyte develops (is dominant)
4) Ovulation occurs
5) Follicle forms corpus luteum
- Secretes estrogen (estradiol) and progesterone
6) Corpus luteum degenerate if there is no fertilization
The Ovarian Cycle
The ______ ______ parallels the _____ _______.
uterine cycle; ovarian cycle
_____ days into the ovarian cycle the _____ starts to develop due to the increase in ______.
5; endometrium; estrogen
The endometrium is fully developed ___ days after ovulation.
Menstruation begins ________ days after ovulation and _______ decreases.
The ovaries respond to _____ and _____.
The ovaries produce _____ for endometrial development.
Ovulation is triggered by an _____ surge.
If pregnancy occurs the ____ ____ stays in tact.
After the ovarian cycle the ___ ___ is all that's left of the follicle and becomes an ____ gland that secretes _____ and _____.
corpus luteum; endocrine; estrogen; progesterone
In the event that there is no fertilization, the _______ ______ degrades, progesterone levels ____, and the ______ sloughs off.
corpus luteum; decrease, endometrium
Human chorionic gonadotropin
If pregnancy occurs hCG is produced by the ______ and keeps the corpus luteum _____.
If hCG is being produced, estrogen and progesterone levels are ______ to prevent menstruation.
Negative feedback will produce _____ and ____ during the uterine and ovarian cycles.
The _____ takes over the _____ _____ job at the end of the 1st trimester and begins producing estrogen and progesterone.
placenta; corpus luteum's
The estrogen: progesterone ratio triggers ______.
Nervous tissue becomes concentrated toward one end of an organism and eventually produces a head region with sensory organs
The ____ ____ controls simple behaviors like contraction and relaxation.
Produce and conduct signals
- Action potentials
Receive incoming signals
_____ and ______ make up a nerve.
The integrating center where action potential begins; sort of the "neck" of the neuron
Signals go through the ____ ____ and the the axon hillock.
The synapse (or synaptic clept) is at the ______ of the neuron.
Action potentials travel down the ____ and end at the ____ ____.
axon; axon terminal
Carry command signals to muscles and glands. These include physiological and behavioral commands.
Pick up information from the outside
Carry information to the Central Nervous System
Oligodendrocytes act as ____.
Connect afferent and efferent neurons
Are in the CNS
In the PNS
Wrap around axons
In the CNS
Wrap around the axon
Release glycogen and neurotransmitters
Involved with the blood-brain barrier and blood flow
Astrocytes look like _____ and are a type of ____ cell.
Oxytocin is produced by ____ of the hypothalamus and is released in the _____ _______.
neurons; posterior pituitary
Protects the brain from toxic chemicals in the blood
Cell membranes have a ______ ______ which is measured in _____.
membrane potential; volts
The difference in electrical potential across a membrane
When a neuron is resting/not producing any action potentials
Resting membrane potential
The electrical concepts that explain how neurons work
Driving force behind current
Causes electrically charged particles to move between two points
Pumps generate _____ _______.
Sudden, transient, large changes in membrane potential
No action potential
All or none response
Change in membrane potential
When reached, an action potential will be produced
HOW MUCH CHANGE IS NEEDED TO SEE A REACTION
Membrane potential is becoming less negative (or positive)
Resting potential is overshot
When action potentials jump from node to node this is called a _____ ______.
Vertebrate nervous systems consist of the ____, ______ _______, and ______ ______ ______.
brain; spinal cord; peripheral nervous system
Most invertebrates have a _____ ____ ____, which consists of the _____ and ____ _____.
central nervous system; brain; spinal cord
Afferent sends info to CNS
Efferent sends info from CNS
Peripheral nervous system
Complex behaviors, learning, and memory
Integrate sensory motor information (fine-tune movement)
Motor coordination, equilibrium, and posture
Basic physiological functions
- Regulate respiratory and cardiac functions
Sense of smell
Conversion of afferent information into efferent without involving the brain
Includes two neurons
Three or more neurons
The divisions of the PNS:
Controls involuntary functions like breathing and heartbeat
- Sympathetic (fight or flight response)
- Parasympathetic (rest and digest response)
Autonomic nervous system
Voluntary control of muscles
Somatic nervous system
Ligand gated channels
Opens ion channels
Use sensory receptor cells
Sensors or receptors
Convert stimuli into neuronal signals
- Goes to the CNS for processing
All senses have similar pathways
Parts of the sensory system
1) Recieve _______
2) Signal _______
3) Signal is _______
4) Signal is sent to the ________ center (brain)
5) _______ of the signal occurs in the ________
signal; transduction; amplified; integrating; Perception
Classification of sensory receptors
Helps with taste, pH, blood oxygen levels, etc.
Helps with touch, hearing, and blood pressure
Helps with vision
Helps to generate and detect electric fields
Helps animals with migration and movement
Help sense temperature
Cells can have ______ or _______ receptors.
Deals with ion channels or direct opening of ion channels
Influences ion channels indirectly through G proteins and second messengers
Sense of smell
Olfaction uses ________. Vertebrates have ______ in _____ tissue of the nasal cavity.
chemoreceptors; neurons; epithilial
1) _______ molecules bind to receptors on ______ ______ (neurons)
- Metabotropic receptors involved
2) Receptor cell produces ____ _____
3) Neurotransmitter released to _____ _______ to neurons in ____ ______
Odorant; receptor cells; action potential; pass information; olfactory bulb
What happens during prolonged simulus?
Adaptation, sensory cells give smaller and smaller responses
Sense of taste
Tastebuds are _______ clusters.
Taste buds are on the _____ of the ______ in humans.
Tastebuds have _____ _____ not neurons. They also have microvilli with ____ ______.
sensory cells; receptor proteins
Sensory cells release ______ which stimulate ______ _____, producing _____ ____.
neurotransmitters; sensory neurons; action potential