Flashcards in Test 2 Deck (122):
Who is the source of all political power?
What are the 5 types of government?
What is an anarchy?
The absence of government
What is socialism?
1. Both a government and economic system
2. Government owns part of the means of production
What is communism?
1. Both a government and economic system
2. Government owns all the means of production
What is a democracy?
What is an absolute monarchy?
The king has complete power
What is a constitutional monarchy?
The king shares power with the people (parliament)
What are the 5 factors of production?
What are the 4 basic economic questions?
1. What should be made?
2. How much should be produced?
3. What methods should be used?
4. How should goods/services be distributed?
What factor is used to determine how you answer the 4 economic questions?
What type of government is in place?
What, in 1215, was used to try and limit the powers of the king?
What 3 principles came from the Magna Carta?
1. The right to a trial by jury
2. Due process of law
3. No taxation without consent
Every state except which is based off English common law?
What is the practice of judges basing their decisions on previous cases called?
What does precedent do?
Brings guidance to other judges
Under the English common law, what cannot be taken away illegally?
Life, liberty and property
Who wrote "The Prince"?
What did "The Prince" say about government?
1. The best form is one where citizens feel a patriotic attachment to the state.
2. Effective rulers only act in their political interest
Who wrote "Political Ideas Derived from the Very Words of Holy Scripture"?
What did Bossuet promote in his book?
The diving right of kings.
Who wrote "Free Law of Free Monarchy"?
What does king James promote in his book?
1. King is responsible to God alone
2. The king is like a father and the people are like his children
Who wrote "Six Books of the Republic"?
What did Bodin promote in his book?
1. Every country must have a supreme power
2. Kings are the natural solution
3. King MUST be subject to natural law
What does "Legis Summi Imperii", as used in Jean Bodin's book, mean?
"Salic Law" or "no women rulers"
What was passed in 1628 in order to limit the royal authority?
The English Petition of Rights
Under the English Petition of Rights, what can the king not do?
1. Levy taxes
2. Imprison someone without a specific charge or provisions for a jury trial
3. Quarter soldiers in a private home without the home owner's permission
What were the main ideas behind the English Civil War and Commonwealth?
1. The idea of an absolute monarchy would be destroyed
2. The House of Commons becomes the dominant power of England
3. Opposition to a standing army
Who wrote "The Leviathan"?
What does Hobbes promote in "The Leviathan"?
1. Man without government ("state of nature")
2. There would be chaos without government
3. Government should have absolute power
What did the Act of Habeaus Corpus do?
1. Guaranteed a prompt hearing before legal authorities
2. If someone is arrested illegally, the person who arrested them is subject to fines
What happened as a result of the English Bill of Rights?
The Glorious Revolution
What were the things a king could not do under the English Bill of Rights?
1. Suspend law
2. Levy taxes
3. Raise an army
(Not without the consent of parliament)
4. Interfere with parliamentary elections
Under the English Bill of Rights, what basic rights were men granted?
1. Right to petition government
2. Right to a speedy trial
3. Protection from excessive fines and bail
4. Protection from cruel and unusual punishment
What was "The Age of Enlightenment"?
An intellectual movement that began in France
What were the writers of the Enlightenment called?
What 4 things did the Enlightenment stress?
1. Human Nature
4. Natural Law
What were the 4 things philosophes believed?
1. By observing human nature in history and the present, one can discover the laws that govern human nature.
2. Those laws can be used to design a virtuous/orderly society
3. Freedom of religion
4. Freedom of thought
What was "Enlightened Despotism"?
A king justifies his authority on his usefulness to society
Emperor of Austria is the greatest/most powerful example
Who wrote "Two Treatises on Government"?
What did Locke stress in his book?
1. Man is born a "blank slate"
2. Man's character comes through education
3. Man is born with 3 God given natural rights
4. Government is established to protect those rights
5. If government fails, man has the right to replace government
What are the 3 basic God given rights Locke talks about?
Who wrote "The Spirit of Laws"?
Baron de Montesquieu
What did Montesquieu stress in his book?
1. Separation of powers
2. No one branch should have too much power/complete control
How did Montesquieu propose the separation of powers?
1. One branch should make the laws
2. One branch should interpret the laws
3. One branch should enforce the laws
Who wrote "Candide"?
What did Voltaire believe in?
1. Rulers should use their authority to promote reform
2. Freedom of thought
3. Religious freedom
Who wrote "Social Contract"?
Jean Jaques Rosseau
What did Rosseau write about in "Social Contract"?
1. General will is sovereign
2. Life, liberty and property
3. Right of Revolution (the will of the community is more important than individual rights (determined democratically.))
Who wrote the "Essay on Crimes and Punishments"?
Marquis Ceraradi Beccaria
What did Beccaria stress in his essay?
Man should have a system of laws that apply equally to all classes
Who were the Physiocrats?
Economists during the Enlightenment
Who wrote "Economic Tables"?
What was "Economic Tables" about?
1. Promoting Laissez Faire
2. Government doesn't regulate the economy
3. Supports free trade (no tariffs on shipping)
Who wrote "An Inquiry Into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations"?
What did Adam Smith promote in his book?
1. Support Laissez Faire
2. People should be allowed to produce as much as possible without governmental interference
3. Trade as much as possible
What influenced the foundations of capitalism and was molded to fit America's specific needs?
The British Government
Under the British. Government, who was the head of state?
Under the British Government, who was the legislative branch made of?
Prime Minister and the legislature
Under the British government, what were the two houses in Parliament called?
1. House of Lords
2. House of Commons
What was the first governing document in America?
Articles of Confederation
What was the purpose of the Constitutional Convention?
To revise the Articles of Confederation
What was the only state that did not attend the Convention?
Who was the President of the Convention?
Who was the father of the constitution?
Who was the chairman/committee of style?
Who served as the elder statesman?
What were the 5 major goals of the Convention?
1. Create a republic
2. Have a written constitution
3. Have a stronger national government
4. Have a government that will protect human/ property rights
5. Reform society so government would have virtue
What were the 3 major conflicts of the Convention?
1. Economics- Ag. Vs. Commercial states
2. Strength of the national government vs. the states rights
3. Representation in Congress
Who introduced the VA Plan?
Under the VAP, what could the legislative branch do?
According to the VAP, how was congress to be divided?
In two houses. Bicameral
Based on the VAP, reps in congress were determined by...
According to the VAP, who had more reps?
Based on the VAP, how many votes did each congressman have?
The VAP says that the reps in the lower house are chosen by whom?
According to the VAP, how are the reps in the upper house chosen?
By the lower house
Per the VAP, what could the executive branch do?
Enforce the law
How is the executive chosen according to the VAP?
According to the VAP, which branch could interpret the law?
How is the judicial branch chosen?
By the legislative branch
Who proposed the NJ plan?
Under the NJP, the legislative branch was
Under the NJP, legislatures had how many votes?
One equal vote
According to the NJP, how many people were in the executive branch?
How were the 3 executives chosen under the NJP?
By the legislative branch
According to the NJP, how were people in the judicial branch chosen?
What was the CT Compromise and who proposed it?
A combination of the VAP and the NJP
What was agreed upon for the legislative branch under the CTC?
2. Each member has one vote
How are the numbers of reps for the lower house (house of reps) determined under the CTC?
What is the upper house called?
Every state has how many senators?
How many votes do senators have?
How are senators chosen?
The executive branch is made up of how many people, under the CTC?
How many times can the president be re-elected?
As many times as possible
Who set the standard "2 term then retire" for the presidents?
What are the two jobs of the electoral college?
1. Elect the president
2. Elect the VP
What did the 12th amendment do?
Made it to where the President and VP had to be voted on separately
Slave states in the 3/5 compromise wanted what?
1. To count slaves in determining the number of reps each state received
2. To NOT count slaves in the percent of the tax burden to paid
What did the non slave states want from the 3/5 compromise?
1. To NOT count slaves in determining the number of reps each state would receive
2. To count slaves in the percentage of tax burden to be paid
What was the slave trade compromise?
The international slave trade would remain open another 20 years
What were the delegated powers?
Powers that the constitution gives the federal government
What are the reserved powers?
Powers that are kept by the states
Do the delegated powers or the reserved powers have more power?
Where can amendments be originated?
2. Constitutional convention
An amendment must be ratified by how many states to become part of the constitution?
How many states needed to approve the replacement of the AOC?
Which states were necessary to vote yes on replacing the AOC?
VA, NY, MA
Who were the federalists?
People who supported the constitution
What did the federalists want?
Strong central government
Who were the three men from the "Federalist Papers"?
1. James Madison
2. John Jay
3. Alexander Hamilton
Who were the anti federalists?
People who opposed the constitution
What were the three main problems to the anti federalists?
1. The constitution took too much power from the states
2. No Bill of rights
3. Gave the president too much power
Which state was the first to ratify the constitution?
Which state was the last state to ratify the constitution?
Which state was the 9th (giving the final vote to make the constitution official) state to ratify the constitution?
Under the constitution, what could the legislature do?
1. Make laws
2. Approve presidential appointments
How many people did the constitution allow in congress?
435. 100 in the senate and 335 in the H.R.
What could the judicial branch do under the constitution?
1. Interpret the law
2. Determine the constitutionality of a law