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Flashcards in Test 2 Deck (122):
0

Who is the source of all political power?

God

1

What are the 5 types of government?

1. Anarchy
2. Socialism
3. Communism
4. Democracy
5. Monarchy

2

What is an anarchy?

The absence of government

3

What is socialism?

1. Both a government and economic system
2. Government owns part of the means of production

4

What is communism?

1. Both a government and economic system
2. Government owns all the means of production

5

What is a democracy?

People rule

6

What is an absolute monarchy?

The king has complete power

7

What is a constitutional monarchy?

The king shares power with the people (parliament)

8

What are the 5 factors of production?

1. Land
2. Labor
3. Capital
4. Entrepreneurship
5. Technology

9

What are the 4 basic economic questions?

1. What should be made?
2. How much should be produced?
3. What methods should be used?
4. How should goods/services be distributed?

10

What factor is used to determine how you answer the 4 economic questions?

What type of government is in place?

11

What, in 1215, was used to try and limit the powers of the king?

Manga Carta

12

What 3 principles came from the Magna Carta?

1. The right to a trial by jury
2. Due process of law
3. No taxation without consent

13

Every state except which is based off English common law?

Louisiana

14

What is the practice of judges basing their decisions on previous cases called?

Precedent

15

What does precedent do?

Brings guidance to other judges

16

Under the English common law, what cannot be taken away illegally?

Life, liberty and property

17

Who wrote "The Prince"?

Niccolo Machiavelli

18

What did "The Prince" say about government?

1. The best form is one where citizens feel a patriotic attachment to the state.
2. Effective rulers only act in their political interest

19

Who wrote "Political Ideas Derived from the Very Words of Holy Scripture"?

Bishop Bossuet

20

What did Bossuet promote in his book?

The diving right of kings.

21

Who wrote "Free Law of Free Monarchy"?

James I

22

What does king James promote in his book?

1. King is responsible to God alone
2. The king is like a father and the people are like his children

23

Who wrote "Six Books of the Republic"?

Jean Bodin

24

What did Bodin promote in his book?

1. Every country must have a supreme power
2. Kings are the natural solution
3. King MUST be subject to natural law

25

What does "Legis Summi Imperii", as used in Jean Bodin's book, mean?

"Salic Law" or "no women rulers"

26

What was passed in 1628 in order to limit the royal authority?

The English Petition of Rights

27

Under the English Petition of Rights, what can the king not do?

1. Levy taxes
2. Imprison someone without a specific charge or provisions for a jury trial
3. Quarter soldiers in a private home without the home owner's permission

28

What were the main ideas behind the English Civil War and Commonwealth?

1. The idea of an absolute monarchy would be destroyed
2. The House of Commons becomes the dominant power of England
3. Opposition to a standing army

29

Who wrote "The Leviathan"?

Thomas Hobbes

30

What does Hobbes promote in "The Leviathan"?

1. Man without government ("state of nature")
2. There would be chaos without government
3. Government should have absolute power

31

What did the Act of Habeaus Corpus do?

1. Guaranteed a prompt hearing before legal authorities
2. If someone is arrested illegally, the person who arrested them is subject to fines

32

What happened as a result of the English Bill of Rights?

The Glorious Revolution

33

What were the things a king could not do under the English Bill of Rights?

1. Suspend law
2. Levy taxes
3. Raise an army
(Not without the consent of parliament)
4. Interfere with parliamentary elections

34

Under the English Bill of Rights, what basic rights were men granted?

1. Right to petition government
2. Right to a speedy trial
3. Protection from excessive fines and bail
4. Protection from cruel and unusual punishment

35

What was "The Age of Enlightenment"?

An intellectual movement that began in France

36

What were the writers of the Enlightenment called?

Philosophes

37

What 4 things did the Enlightenment stress?

1. Human Nature
2. Reason
3. Science
4. Natural Law

38

What were the 4 things philosophes believed?

1. By observing human nature in history and the present, one can discover the laws that govern human nature.
2. Those laws can be used to design a virtuous/orderly society
3. Freedom of religion
4. Freedom of thought

39

What was "Enlightened Despotism"?

A king justifies his authority on his usefulness to society

Emperor of Austria is the greatest/most powerful example

40

Who wrote "Two Treatises on Government"?

John Locke

41

What did Locke stress in his book?

1. Man is born a "blank slate"
2. Man's character comes through education
3. Man is born with 3 God given natural rights
4. Government is established to protect those rights
5. If government fails, man has the right to replace government

42

What are the 3 basic God given rights Locke talks about?

1. Life
2. Liberty
3. Property

43

Who wrote "The Spirit of Laws"?

Baron de Montesquieu

44

What did Montesquieu stress in his book?

1. Separation of powers
2. No one branch should have too much power/complete control

45

How did Montesquieu propose the separation of powers?

1. One branch should make the laws
2. One branch should interpret the laws
3. One branch should enforce the laws

46

Who wrote "Candide"?

Voltaire

47

What did Voltaire believe in?

1. Rulers should use their authority to promote reform
2. Freedom of thought
3. Religious freedom

48

Who wrote "Social Contract"?

Jean Jaques Rosseau

49

What did Rosseau write about in "Social Contract"?

1. General will is sovereign
2. Life, liberty and property
3. Right of Revolution (the will of the community is more important than individual rights (determined democratically.))

50

Who wrote the "Essay on Crimes and Punishments"?

Marquis Ceraradi Beccaria

51

What did Beccaria stress in his essay?

Man should have a system of laws that apply equally to all classes

52

Who were the Physiocrats?

Economists during the Enlightenment

53

Who wrote "Economic Tables"?

Francios Quesnay

54

What was "Economic Tables" about?

1. Promoting Laissez Faire
2. Government doesn't regulate the economy
3. Supports free trade (no tariffs on shipping)

55

Who wrote "An Inquiry Into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations"?

Adam Smith

56

What did Adam Smith promote in his book?

1. Support Laissez Faire
2. People should be allowed to produce as much as possible without governmental interference
3. Trade as much as possible

57

What influenced the foundations of capitalism and was molded to fit America's specific needs?

The British Government

58

Under the British. Government, who was the head of state?

The king

59

Under the British Government, who was the legislative branch made of?

Prime Minister and the legislature

60

Under the British government, what were the two houses in Parliament called?

1. House of Lords
2. House of Commons

61

What was the first governing document in America?

Articles of Confederation

62

What was the purpose of the Constitutional Convention?

To revise the Articles of Confederation

63

What was the only state that did not attend the Convention?

Rhode Island

64

Who was the President of the Convention?

George Washington

65

Who was the father of the constitution?

James Madison

66

Who was the chairman/committee of style?

Gouvernour Morris

67

Who served as the elder statesman?

Ben Franklin

68

What were the 5 major goals of the Convention?

1. Create a republic
2. Have a written constitution
3. Have a stronger national government
4. Have a government that will protect human/ property rights
5. Reform society so government would have virtue

69

What were the 3 major conflicts of the Convention?

1. Economics- Ag. Vs. Commercial states
2. Strength of the national government vs. the states rights
3. Representation in Congress

70

Who introduced the VA Plan?

James Madison

71

Under the VAP, what could the legislative branch do?

Make laws

72

According to the VAP, how was congress to be divided?

In two houses. Bicameral

73

Based on the VAP, reps in congress were determined by...

Population

74

According to the VAP, who had more reps?

Larger states

75

Based on the VAP, how many votes did each congressman have?

One

76

The VAP says that the reps in the lower house are chosen by whom?

The voters

77

According to the VAP, how are the reps in the upper house chosen?

By the lower house

78

Per the VAP, what could the executive branch do?

Enforce the law

79

How is the executive chosen according to the VAP?

Legislative branch

80

According to the VAP, which branch could interpret the law?

Judicial

81

How is the judicial branch chosen?

By the legislative branch

82

Who proposed the NJ plan?

William Patterson

83

Under the NJP, the legislative branch was

Unicameral

84

Under the NJP, legislatures had how many votes?

One equal vote

85

According to the NJP, how many people were in the executive branch?

3

86

How were the 3 executives chosen under the NJP?

By the legislative branch

87

According to the NJP, how were people in the judicial branch chosen?

Legislative branch

88

What was the CT Compromise and who proposed it?

A combination of the VAP and the NJP
Roger Sherman

89

What was agreed upon for the legislative branch under the CTC?

1. Bicameral
2. Each member has one vote

90

How are the numbers of reps for the lower house (house of reps) determined under the CTC?

Population

91

What is the upper house called?

Senate

92

Every state has how many senators?

2

93

How many votes do senators have?

One

94

How are senators chosen?

State legislatures

95

The executive branch is made up of how many people, under the CTC?

One.

96

How many times can the president be re-elected?

As many times as possible

97

Who set the standard "2 term then retire" for the presidents?

Washington

98

What are the two jobs of the electoral college?

1. Elect the president
2. Elect the VP

99

What did the 12th amendment do?

Made it to where the President and VP had to be voted on separately

100

Slave states in the 3/5 compromise wanted what?

1. To count slaves in determining the number of reps each state received
2. To NOT count slaves in the percent of the tax burden to paid

101

What did the non slave states want from the 3/5 compromise?

1. To NOT count slaves in determining the number of reps each state would receive
2. To count slaves in the percentage of tax burden to be paid

102

What was the slave trade compromise?

The international slave trade would remain open another 20 years

103

What were the delegated powers?

Powers that the constitution gives the federal government

104

What are the reserved powers?

Powers that are kept by the states

105

Do the delegated powers or the reserved powers have more power?

Reserved

106

Where can amendments be originated?

1. Congress
2. Constitutional convention

107

An amendment must be ratified by how many states to become part of the constitution?

3/4

108

How many states needed to approve the replacement of the AOC?

9

109

Which states were necessary to vote yes on replacing the AOC?

VA, NY, MA

110

Who were the federalists?

People who supported the constitution

111

What did the federalists want?

Strong central government

112

Who were the three men from the "Federalist Papers"?

1. James Madison
2. John Jay
3. Alexander Hamilton

113

Who were the anti federalists?

People who opposed the constitution

114

What were the three main problems to the anti federalists?

1. The constitution took too much power from the states
2. No Bill of rights
3. Gave the president too much power

115

Which state was the first to ratify the constitution?

Delaware

116

Which state was the last state to ratify the constitution?

Rhode Island

117

Which state was the 9th (giving the final vote to make the constitution official) state to ratify the constitution?

New Hampshire

118

Under the constitution, what could the legislature do?

1. Make laws
2. Approve presidential appointments

119

How many people did the constitution allow in congress?

435. 100 in the senate and 335 in the H.R.

120

What could the judicial branch do under the constitution?

1. Interpret the law
2. Determine the constitutionality of a law

121

The constitution allowed what of the executive branch?

1. Execute/enforce the law
2. Commander-In-Chief of the military