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Flashcards in Test 2 Deck (28):
1

Protic solvents

consist of molecules that can act as hydrogen-bond donors

2

Polar solvents

polar molecules, have high dielectric constant

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Donor solvents

molecules that can donate unshared electron pairs-that is molecules that can act as lewis bases. (not nucleophiles bc don't form bond with)

4

Hydrogen bonds occur when a hydrogen can be put btwn ____

oxygens, nitrogens, halogens

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Hexane

apolar, aprotic, nondonor

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THF

apolar, aprotic, donor and dissolves H2O

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Acetic acid (C2H4O2)

apolar, protic, donor

8

Acetone (C3H6O)

polar, aprotic, donor

9

H2O

polar, protic, donor

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Alkyl Halide

Halogen bonded to the carbon of an alkyl group

11

Alcohol

a hydroxy group (-OH) is bonded to the carbon of an alkyl group

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Thiols (Mercaptans)

a sulfahydryl group  (-SH also called mercapto group) is bonded to an alkyl group

13

Ether

an oxygen is bonded to two carbons groups

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Sulfide (thioether)

a sulfur bonded to two carbon groups

15

Glycols

compounds that contain two or more hydroxy (-OH) groups on adjacent carbons

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Common nomenclature: Alkyl Halides

-name of alkyl group followed by name of halide

ex: CH3CH2-Cl = ethyl cholride

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Common nomenclature: Alcohols and Thiols

Common name derived by specifying the alkyl group that is attached to the -OH or -SH group then adding the word alcohol or mercaptan

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Common nomenclature: Ethers and Sulfides

-cite the two groups attached to the Oxygen or Sulfur in alphabetical order and follow with the word ether (for O) or sulfide (for S)

19

Oxirane (ethylene oxide)

-parent compound to a special class of heterocyclic ethers called epoxides

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20

Isomers

have the same molecular formula

21

Stereoisomers

  1. same molecular formula
  2. same atomic connectivity

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constitutional isomers

  1. same molecular formula
  2. different atomic connectivity

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enantiomers

  1. same molecular formula
  2. same atomic connectivity
  3. noncongruent mirror images

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diastereomers

  1. same molecular formula
  2. same atomic connectivity
  3. not mirror images

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Meso compounds

  1. same molecular formula
  2. same atomic connectivity
  3. congruent mirror images (internal plane of symmetry)

26

Conformational stereoisomers

In chemistry, conformational isomerism is a form of stereoisomerism in which the isomerscan be interconverted exclusively by rotations about formally single bonds

27

Naming: spirocyclic compounds

spira-[#Cs in ring 1. # Cs in ring two]-total carbons-ane

28

Naming: bicyclic compounds

Fused: bicylco[# Cs ring 1. # Cs ring 2. 0]-total Cs-ane

Bridged: bicylco[# Cs ring 1. # Cs ring 2. # Cs in bridge]-total Cs-ane