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Flashcards in Test #2 Deck (45):

What are the three agency levels of analysis?

Macro level/structural(not changeable)

Meso level/institutional (state)

Micro level/individual


Why did authoritarianism become so common and post colonial era?

The colonial legacy left structural and difficult for Africa nations to undo


Why did authoritarianism become so common and post colonial era?
Explain the institutional levels of analysis

Institutions – evolved or designed for moral or informal rules and constraints that shape choices/agency; changeable but not easily(due to path dependence, etc.)

Examples of institutions-
-can be normative/Ideational (ideas eg. Ideologies, languages, religious believes, gendered walls, development, the market etc.)
-Organizational (eg. A government department, the military, the media, NGOs, I FI, church hierarchy, law and judicial system, etc)
-endogenous change (incremental evolution)
-Exogenous shock (example, colonialism, economic crisis, military intervention, coup, weather etc.)

Institutional equals the state
Indirect rule British local authority chiefs given tasks from colonial power
Local community, colonial government, local authority( despotic and absolutist corruption)


Why did authoritarianism become so common and post colonial era?
Explain individual levels of analysis

Decisions of leaders
Political ideologies
Military leaders- coup- authoritarian governments or regimes


Why did authoritarianism become so common and post colonial era?
Explain the structural level of analysis

Often hidden constraints to agency – example structure of global economy, geography, climate things that are unchangeable

African independence at the heart of the cold war
Cold war – funding on one or more sides
ODA (Aid)- goes to the state( military assistance export rent money)

Cold war being seen as a rejection of imperialism- reject democracy
Alternative models from the USSR and China- similar peasant society in rapid industrialization


How much did colonization impact the postcolonial trajectories of African politics? 6

1-Borders (territoriality)
2-culture, religion, and ethnicity (Society/identity)
3- language and education (Society/identity)
4-forms of colonial administration, settlement
5-institutions (legal, political, property, etc.)
6-economies( commodity/export dependence)


How might precolonial and/or colonial eras influence, impact, constrain, determined, structure cause and/or provide foundations for postcolonial state evolution?

-Direct versus indirect rule eg. Brits vs French
-raisin d'etat of colonial state (eg Belgian Congo, settler states
- extensiveness of colonial authority(scope and time)
-citizen and subject (mamdani)- rights vs despotism
- economic exploitation/dependency
- constraints against indigenous business/capitalist class
-political thought and ideology


What are some of the attributes of a modern state?

Population, monopoly over violence, recognition and ability to negotiate with other states, sovereignty, territory, legitimacy, ability to impose laws and responsibilities on citizens, provision of public goods(including education/healthcare/pensions), competent public administration, security (internal and/or X ternal)


What are the basics of the modern state?

People, territory, government
Additionally: legitimacy( including monopoly use of coercion), relations with other states; recognition


What is the difference between positive sovereignty and negative sovereignty?

Positive sovereignty = de facto state (empirical state that delivers public goods)

Negative sovereignty= externally recognized, de jure state (but can be weak Interno Lee; does not necessarily deliver public goods effectively yet persists)
Think negative =non interference


Theories of state formation:
From the textbook where do states come from? There are different origins for states which make a difference to state performance? 7
List and briefly describe each

-social contract theory-Society coming together to sign a contract, a covenant, whereby they surrender certain individual rights in order to form the state and protect their lives and property
-War making (Tilly, Herbst)- States make wars and wars make states-expenses of war lead kings to tax populations and draft soldiers , people making demands on the state therefore formation of nationstates
- banditry - (Olson, RCT). - State protects you from roving bandits and takes a portion and they profit from you in the long run then stealing from you ( thanks the godfather protection racket does better than stealing from everyone)
Imperialism/colonialism(Amin/Rodney) - because of the nature of colonial state even independence could not move forward because colonial structures are still there-kept africa underdeveloped to supply the centres of capitalism
Material Benefits (Adam Smith,North, Spruyt)-The Southern State beat other possible institutional configurations and western Europe because of its superior features of internal hierarchy and territorial demarkation. Internal higher key lead to standardize Asian and certainty and helped prevent free writing increasingly credibility of the states commitments toward other units
-recognition and quasi states(jackson and rosberg) (de jure over de facto statehood)


Explain the features of the gatekeeper state

State just taking over from colonial power
Most money made pre-independence from trade
Independence – nationalize business controlling all money – import/export
Gatekeeper state – only wealth in the state
-citizens don't benefit in anyway
-citizens Deincentivized to produce
Gatekeeper states put a transaction cost to every transaction in the economy


Review post World War II foundations of non-intervention timeline

1944: Bretton Woods- non-political clause- Took political ideally geez out of the equations so countries could apply for assistance without restrictions or testing

1945: UN charter-

1954: India – china five principles of peaceful coexistence Pansheel Agreement

1955:Bandung and un package deal - near automatic no more Vito out new member membership any independent country could join

1956: Algeria and suez canal crisis (consent) peacekeeping

1957: Ghana independence and Nkrumah others vision of developmental state or development in a hurry

1960: Congo crisis- july UN resolution 1514 – December- first time you and keeps country together and countries could become independent

1963 to 64: organization of African unity charter – regional state system based on mutual non-interference/recognition of borders


Martins' African political thought
Summarize article

African socialism and African nationalism
Pan Africanism

"Political thought usually precedes and informs political action; the latter, in turn influences political thought. Political theory and political practises are inextricably linked"


Summarize the reading in chapter 6

How the slave trade affected Africa
- countries from which the most of the slaves that were taken had the most underdeveloped political structures
-putting communities against each other the trades prevented the formation of large ethnic groups and increased fractionalization
Human exploitation that's mortality plundering of natural resources the continents loss of population
Colonial economic transformation in Africa involves a high degree of outward orientation as colonial economies regard to her the satisfaction and the needs of colonizers
African economies became extractive

Economic development compounded with other natural conditions
Climate and the spread of infectious disease
Landlocked countries
Temperate climate countries had better economy performance then tropical countries

The resource curse- relationship dependence on commodity exports and poor economic and political performance is known as the resource curse
Countries with weak property rights, inefficient and corrupt bureaucracies and unaccountable governments, natural resources can rapidly become a curse
Infectious disease and aids

Nationalization of foreign companies popular in the 60s and 70s after independence
Interventional list policies and state control of economy were also logical economic manifestations of neopateimonialism


Give the timeline prior to independence of nationalism and describe the early role of ideology in African politics

Nationalism, independent/self-rule and personal emancipation
1945, no colonial plans for independence
1945 to 1960: competing visions of self-rule
1951: Nkrumah -from jail to PM
1957: Gana – first post imperial sub-Saharan African state

Pan Africanism: political, economic, cultural union of all Africans (began outside the continent)
- he shared sense of Africaness (distinct from Europe)
-Independence across the continent
-extensive cooperation between governments
– Overcoming arbitrary colonial boundaries
– Continental or at least regional government
– United States of Africa


Du Bois

First African-American PhD at Harvard 1885
– The Negro experience
– Empirical studies of African-Americans living after the US Civil War analysis
– NAACP – 1911 founder
– African-American struggle – class analysis
- marxist ideology moves to Gana renounces US citizenship
both Fanon and Nkrumah influenced by him



Wretched of the earth
French psychologist realized inequalities of the black man in France
Worked during the Algerian civil war and experiences lead him to join the liberation movement and went to Ghana
Need violet break from oppressors to be free


Claude Ake:

Nigerian scholar PhD in the US taught in Canada mid 60s early 1970s

Exposed to the tumult of East African scholarship rooted in Marxian debates and critique of imperialism and capitalism mid-1970s. Wave of postcolonial scholarship

Became critical of western social science and capitalism, seeing both as an extension of imperialism; work to develop a distinctly Africanized political economy approach


What were the varieties of African political thought that emerged during the independence era after though often along side nationalism and pan Africanism? (19 fifties to 1970s)

Tanzania- Nyerere- African socialism
Ujmaa farms
And reform nationalize the land and had collective farms and people had to leave home and work on the farms
Analyzed banks and private businesses as well
Many people left the country because they could not own their own businesses
African socialism borrowed from western political thought socialism in mixed with cultural African elements
Economy didn't grow for three decades with some signs of success but resistance
- sasses included Swahili language social services and primary healthcare

Cabral- guinea-Bissau and cape Verde
Wanted to overcome ethnic diversity
Political ideological training
Wanted mobilization to overcome class race and ethnic differences
Can't import other ideologies make it culturally relevant
Modes of production control by Africans themselves either state or local production


Crawford young outline three prevailing postcolonial African idea logical tendencies (all with Sharon and anti-colonial nationalism):
What are they?

Populist socialism and pragmatic statist capitalism (1960's)
Radical Afro Marxism (marxist Leninist) 1970s


What is the difference between regime state and governance?

Regimes include:
Presidential or parliamentary fused other
electoral systems
political parties

State includes:
Constitution legislation, policy (formal)
Neopatrimonialism or shadow state (informal)

Governance (public goods )includes:
Executive branch/public administration
Traditional authorities


Describe primordialism

Permanent, a historical, deep-rooted, ancestral, irreducible, nonnegotiable part of one's identity
Identity never changes


Describe the perspective on ethnicity of instrumentalism

Identity can be changed for political purposes to benefit the state were to benefit individuals

Variation of constructivism – uses of ethnicity by political entrepreneurs – as in a groups as political coalitions


Explain the perspective of identity of constructivism

Ethnic identities are somewhat valuable and the outcome of other factors (can be invented, constructed, and becomes more or less salient depending on other factors or institutions

Identity Can be constructed in historical context to put people in categories so it is easier for the state to identify them – colonial notion – identity can be changed and moulded


Summarize reading Appiah "race in the modern world"

"but it turns out that all sorts of status differences between ethnic racial groups can persist long after government stop trying to impose them. Recognizing that institutions and social processes are at work rather than innate qualities of the populations in question has not made it any less difficult to solve the problems"

Race is not biological and is a social construct
DuBios work - founding of Pan Africanism- ideas pushed decolonization of africa

Different persepectives if race


Language in Africa

– Communication
– Does things(names, signifies, authorizes, creates, hurts etc.)
-defines our personality (lightness, tone, etc.)
-different linkages to the practises of politics and preservation of power (Chiefs, linguists, grots, oral histories etc.)
-Pro verbs, jokes(Mali " joking cousins", Riddles and appreciation of oration


Give the historical and conceptual evolution of Neopatrimonialism

1-sovereign: king, monarch, and for etc.
Authority vested in/claimed by person or family
Power is absolute/patrimonial or personalistic rule

2-emergence of constraints on sovereign: lords, elites, merchants, landholders, legislatures (constitutionalism)
Authority divided/separated
Power not absolute; rule of law, bureaucracy, rights

3-negative sovereignty (de jure State recognition/freedom from interference)+ personalistic rule= neopatrimonialism
Constitutionalism possesses undermined or reversed
patrimonial/personalistic rule leverages the formal/legal resources of the state (creates insider and outsider elites)


What is the difference between the selectorate and the people

Why is this important in African politics?

The selector it only includes people that can actually vote
The people include everyone all people even Young or people that can't vote

Important to look at selector it and who can actually vote – who, how many
Political parties can mobilize just to win an election to disappear


Explain how Nigeria has use the language to organize government

Nigeria has three larger languages and the borders that were made don't reflect languages
They had a parliamentary system until 1963 and changed it to a presidential system adding a new state to make 4 statesElites were north and the rest were South leading to a coup in 66 where the coupe leaders kill government to government officials and most majors were from the south east Igbo killing leaders of the north
Since then Nigeria has been divided up further with 36 states

Kanuri-farthest north east region has always been marginalized by language and they are poor Boko haram based there


Explain the issues in cote d' D'ivoire

Had to stay later from 1960 to 1993 as a one-party state
Was very stable and produced Coco as its largest production
Leader dies in 1993 and the new president change the rules regarding access to Land and citizenship

Northerners were unhappy
Southerners want to kick out farmers
Leading to a coup in 1999
2000 to 2010 fighting with an election in 2010 where the UN French West Africans tried to fix the problem


Why do Neopatrimonial states tend to be presidential?

Federal systems include political parties that make constraints in a presidential system it's easier for the state resources to be accessed by the president and be used to maintain loyalties


Give a good definition of neopatrimonialism

Outward appearance of the state might be parliamentary, presidential, tectorial, military or something else. It might have legal checks and balances are other institutional arrangements. But in the end within these formal structures, neopatrimonial functions as a complex web of patron – client relations parasitically incurred on state offices and resources. At the core of the system is the personal ruler, The all powerful president whose words sometimes matter more than the countries Constitution and laws


Outlined the elements of a formal political institution

Constitution, legislation, policy = formal institution
political system:

1-unitary or federal (division of powers)
2-presidential, semi-presidential, parliamentary ( separation of powers) eg. Relationship between executive, legislative, and judicial powers/branches
3- electoral systems and party systems
4- administrative machinery of government (includes military)


Outline the characteristics of informal political institutions

Neopatrimonial or shadow state

1-extent of patron client relationships
2-extent of rentierism and ability to appropriate public goods for private accumulation/distribution
3-extent of Preferential versus Meritocratic appt/promotion of public sector workers
4-extent of personalize Asian of politics – weak party institutionalization, weak constraints on executive power, etc.


Review the following key passages from the assigned readings they are important

All from textbook
"The institutional crisis affecting economic management in Africa is a crisis of structural discontent between formal institutions transplanted from outside and indigenous institutions born of traditional African culture" pg 163

"while the formal African state might be all powerful in law, it's real nature is much more "negotiated" then imposed, with multiple other institutional partners" pg 170

"whatever the actual advances of decentralize Asian in Africa, it is empirically unclear whether local government agencies are any more responsive to cytisine demands that their central counterparts" pg 172

Ray et.Al pg 3
"The differently routed legitimacy of traditional authorities, which exists outside of the control or creation of the postcolonial states, creates enough political resources for the Chiefs to be able to negotiate on behalf of them selves and their communities with the postcolonial state, as well as foreign and domestic not governmental organizations and foreign government"


Nigerian political system explain

Explain how their judicial system includes a customary court

Federal: 36 states plus national government(but national government more power/leverage over states especially regarding financial resources

Pure presidential – US model

Directly elected president – two term limit
Smp National assembly – 360 seats; SMP senate – three per state +1 FCT

States: directly elected governors-to term limit and SMP State assembly members – 20- 40 per state

Judicial branch includes a customary court that is based on area and sharia law but can't be taken to the higher customary court of appeals


South African political system explain

Federal: nine provinces plus national government plus local governments – but national government maintains reserve powers

Parliamentary republic – president is head of state and head of government

President is the leader of majority party in the national assembly- PR National assembly – 400 seats/10 constituencies; national Council of provinces – 90 appointed by provinces

Vinces: provincial assemblies elected via PR/premiere


Briefly describe judiciary of African countries

-historically less significant in African politics

– Limited autonomy and influence of judicial institutions
-informal nature of power in Africa
– Degree of presidential centralization
Prevalence of personal rule: "Neopatrimonial is largely inimical (harmful) to rule of law"

– Salience (Importance) of rule of law and judicial systems increased after post 1990 democratization
– Limitations:
Lack of power and a Tonna me, bribery and informal pressure, absence of commitment from rulers, more likely to favour regimes then human rights activists or opposition (but there are instances of judicial independence, professionalism, and constraints on executive power... is the trend in your case study??


How does the judiciary function in neopartimonial systems

– Presidents just get rid of judges when someone or something in their network is needing somehibg wot work in their favour

– The more NP a society is the less constrained by the law and judiciary

Example in a close election judges can be swayed if their corrupt or appointed by the president

How are judges appointed by loyalty or merit?


How are traditional authorities important in African politics?

– Particularly important for political leaders whose offices are rooted in the pre-colonial period

-can include chiefs, traditional rulers, traditional authorities, Kings, and beers, obas, Queen mother's etc.

-Power struggle for supremacy and legitimacy
Traditional versus modernity - Democracy
Or colonial influence

– Resilience of the institution leads to reinvention

-Gate keeping – gate opening, social marketing/public education, and community capacity building – delivering development?

Remember from the 1980s traditional leaders were at the forefront of development and local issues when governments were falling apart


What are some of the ingredients that lead up to a military coup

Explain the trend in coups Africa

Government legitimacy- there are constraints on the government like media elections etc.

Political geography-

There is not a large group of unhappy people

They were once common form of change and executive power in Africa were thought to be on the decline but since 2010 there has been another modest resurgence which kept the historical rate fairly consistent

More recent coups have resulted in democratic transitions

Coups are about executive power it is usually based on poor economy and struggling of the people, executive power where presidents one step down etc.


What are some of the characteristics of hybrid regimes??

1-holds regular elections, but manipulated by slash for incumbents

2-some civil and political liberties, but repression common

3-not hegemonic, with some opportunities for opposition but overall citizens more vulnerable

4-security apparatus face is limited constraints

5-ruling party generally dwarfs/co-ops opposition parties

6-some informal institutions are – partly decoys – and patronage rampant

7-institutional contradiction – institutions are undermined by regime meeting regime itself is not institutionalized


What is the ibrahamic index?

IBrahim index- of African governance- The foundation defines governance as the provision of the political, social and I can all the goods that a citizen has the right to expect from his or her state, and that the state has the responsibility to deliver to its citizens

IIAG- progress under for made conceptual categories:
Safety and rule of law
Participation and human rights
Sustainable economy opportunity
Human development

These four pillars are populated with data that cover governance elements ranging from infrastructure to freedom of expression and sanitation to property rights


Electoral system