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Flashcards in Test 2 Deck (36):
1

economic anthropology

the study of subsistence strategies and how those strategies shape their society and culture

2

biological determinism

biology determins all behaviors, preferences and personality traits

3

environmental determinism

idea that the physical environment sets limits on human environment

biology and environment do have an effect on human society but how much is debatable

type of society usually defined by how they get food

(these concepts go with environmental and biological determinism)

4

1.foraging (hunting and gathering)

an adaptation in which plant and animal food is gathered rather than cultivated or herded (also includes fishing and scavenging)

5

2.horticulture

an adaptation in which plants are brought together in gardens, usually also with some animals

6

3.agriculture

humans cultivate plants based on specialization in one or a few crops. permanent, and use plows and animals

7

3.agriculture

-specialized culture
-genetic modification of plants
-earliest domesticated plants include potatoes and corn
-usually results in sedentary societies with large populations

8

4.pastoralism

people specialize in raising one or a few animals

9

4.pastoralism

-tend to be highly mobile
-examoles include: dodo tribe, south africa; mongolian goatherders; cowboys; basque shepherds; scottish highland shepherds; bedouin

10

5. industrialism

based on the extraction of a broad range of resources and the sharp expansions of productive capabilities

11

industrialism

-more varied work, variety of products
-sedentary, with large populations
-humans adapted to an environment created mostly by themselves

12

subsistence

how a group aqcuires food and other resources necessary for survival

13

mobility

a mobile lifestyle is one in which most of the group moves regularly. the intensity of mobility can change according to culture and subsistence strategy

14

sedentary

a lifestyle that does not involve frequent movement beyond the immediate areas of home and field

15

subsistence and culture

-in addition to types of food collecting activities, subsistence and environment directly affects a society's:
mobility
material culture
family size and kinship
population density
division of labor
gender roles
social complexity

16

foragers

-groups that do not produce their own foods by way of agriculture, horticulture, or raising animals
-naturally-occuring resources by hunting, fishing, gathering, scavenging, and/or trade
-mild impact on the environment

17

foragers

-most of human history: foraging
-today, few remaining live in marginal areas: deserts, arctic, tropical forest
-anthropologists study them often to talk about human past

18

caution:

1. foragers used to live everywhere, not just marginal
2. contemporary foragers are not relics of the past
-ethnographic analogy
-book org.
3. most contemporary foragers are in contact with other kinds of societies that didn't used to exist

19

relationship to environment (mobility)

-not all resources are in the same place
-some resources are unpredictable
-travel between "patches"
-most at least seasonally mobile

20

flexibility

-require flexibility in tasks they can do, group sizes, and location
-some tasks require more or less people than others, take longer

21

social relationships: age
-people of all ages are relatively self reliant

children:

pick nuts and berries
hunt small game
processing material
get water and firewood

22

elderly:

same+midwifing
babysitting
mediation
spiritual leaders

23

birth intervals

-3-5 years in forager societies.
extended nursing (& other birth-control)
-a woman pregnant 4-6 times
-most of reproductive cycle lactating rather than ovulating
-taboos

24

1. division of labor

not harsh or rigid. based along sex and age

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2. territoriality

no sharp commitment

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3. kinship

emphasis on nuclear family with flexible relationships. maintained regardless of locality

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4. social control

avoidance of enduring conflicts. few grudges, settled with little violence

28

5. egalitarian

all people have the same basic skills, equality

29

6. religious beliefs

personal rather than mediated, nature

30

7. ecological soundness

rarely deplete the environment, because often moving

31

8. security

reliance on a broad range of resources

32

9. external conflict:

more options for peace than other societies

33

foraging: Kung example

-hunt wild game in dry months, and eggs, and plants in wetter months
-plants and animals provide food, clothing, and shelter
-foragers tend to be mobile, tend to have smaller population sizes
-kung confined to reservations, limited access to foraging

34

salish tribes

-produced elaborate longhouses, bentwood boxes, totem poles, and bark clothing
-complex ceremonies like
-complex foragers
-culture based on cedar, berries, and salmon
-mostly sedentary, though some seasonal mobility
-

35

horticulture

animal and plant foods are brought together in non permanent gardens using simple tools and methods

36

domestication

human control over plants and animals