Flashcards in Test 2 Deck (45):
the smallest particle of an element that has all of the element's chemical properties.
A negatively charged particle that whizzes about within an atom
the core of an atom, consisting of two basic subatomic particles--protons and neutrons.
An electrically neutral particle in the nucleus of an atom
a positively charged particle in the nucleus of an atom
A pure substance that consists of only one kind of atom
an electrically charged atom; an atom with an excess or deficiency of electrons
Atoms of the same element that contain different numbers of neutrons
a material in which atoms of different elements are chemically bonded to one another
a substance whose components are mixed together without combining chemically
two or more atoms that bond together by a sharing of electrons. Atoms combine to become molecules
a "complementary" form of matter composed of atoms that have negative nuclei and positive electrons
unseen and unidentified matter that is evidenced by its gravitational pull on stars in the galaxies. Dark matter along with dark energy constitutes perhaps 96% of the stuff of the universe
the locking together of atoms to form larger structures, including solids
the mass of a substance per unit volume:
Density = mass / volume
weight per unit volume:
Weight density = weight / volume
The study of how size affects the relationships among weights, strength, and surface area.
the ratio of force to the area over which that force is distributes:
Pressure = force / area
Liquid pressure = weight density X depth
the net upward force that a fluid exerts on an immersed object
an immersed body is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces.
Principle of flotation
a floating object displaces a weight of fluid equal to its own weight.
the pressure applied to a motionless fluid confined in a container is transmitted undiminished throughout the fluid.
the tendency of the surface of a liquid to contract in area and thus behave like a stretch elastic membrane
The rise of a liquid in a fine, hollow tube or in a narrow space.
A device that measures atmospheric pressure
Archimedes' Principle (for air)
an object in the air is buoyed up with a force equal to the weight of the displaced air.
where the speed of a fluid increases, the internal pressure in the fluid decreases
An electrified gas that contains ions and free electrons most of the matter int eh rivers is in the plasma phase.
the energy that flows from a substance of nighter temperature to a substance of lower temperature, commonly measured in calories or joules.
the total of all molecular energies, kinetic plus potential, that are internal to a substance.
Specific heat capacity
the quantity of heat per unit mass required to raise the temperature of a substance by 1 Celsius degree
the transfer of heat energy by molecular and electron collisions within a substance (especially a solid).
the transfer of heat energy in a gas or liquid by means of currents in the heated fluid. The fluid moves carrying energy with it
the transfer of energy by means of electromagnetic waves
the radiation emitted by Earth to outer space
Newtons's law of cooling
the rate of loss of heat from a warm object is proportional to the temperature difference between the object and its surroundings
energy per unit time received from the sun
the change of phase from liquid to gaseous
the change of phase from solid to gaseous, bypassing the liquid phase
the change of phase from gaseous to liquid
the rapid evaporation that takes place within a liquid as well as at its surface.
the process of melting under pressure ad then subsequently refreezing when the pressure is removed
a device that transfers heat out of a cool environment and into a warm environment.
the study of heat and its transformation into different forms of energy