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Flashcards in Test 2 Deck (26):
1

Controlling behavior

The use of self management strategies in which the antecedents and the consequences of a target behavior and/or alternative behaviors are modified

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Controlled behavior

The target behavior that is influenced in a self management project

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Goal-setting

A self management strategy in which the person decides on and writes down the desired level of the target behavior he or she hopes to achieve as a result of self management procedures

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Self instruction

Self statement that makes it more likely that a target behavior will occur in a specific situation.

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Behavioral contract

A written document that specifies a particular behavior for a client and the consequences that will be contingent on the occurrence or nonoccurence of the behavior in a stated period of time

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Self praise

Making positive statements to yourself or providing positive evaluations of your own behavior after engaging in an appropriate behavior

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One-party contract

A behavioral contract in which one person seeks to change a target behavior. The person arranges the contract with a contract manager, who implements the contingency

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Parallel contract

A two party contract in which two people each seek behavior change. Both people specify their behavior to be changed and the consequence for their behavior. However, the contract behaviors and consequences for each party are independent of each other. Contrast the quid pro quo contract, in which the behavior of one party is the reinforcer for the behavior with the other party

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Quid pro quo contract

A two party contract in which two people each specify a behavior that they will change in return for the behavior change of the other person

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Rule-governed behavior

Behavior that is controlled by a verbal statement (a rule) about a contingency between the behavior and a consequence

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Two-party contract

A type of contact in which two people both identity behaviors to change and the consequences for the behavior change

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Backward conditioning

A respondent conditioning procedure in which the unconditioned stimulus is presented before the conditioned stimulus. This is the least effective type of respondent conditioning procedure

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Conditioned emotional response

A type of conditioned response in which an emotional response such as fear, anger, or happiness is elicited by a conditioned stimulus in the process of respondent conditioning

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Conditioned response

In respondent conditioning, a CR is elicited by a conditioned stimulus. The conditioned stimulus acquires the power to elicit the CR by its repeated pairing with an unconditioned stimulus or another conditioned stimulus

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Conditioned stimulus

A previously neutral stimulus that has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus. Once established in this way, the CS elicits a conditioned response similar to the unconditioned response elicited by the unconditioned stimulus

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Delay conditioning

A type of respondent conditioning in which the conditioned stimulus is presented and the unconditioned stimulus is then presented before the termination of the CS

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Higher-order conditioning

The process by which, when a neutral stimulus is paired with a conditioned stimulus a number of times, the neutral stimulus becomes a CS that will then elicit the same conditioned response

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Operant behavior

Behavior that acts on the environment to produce an immediate consequence and, in turn, is strengthened by that consequence

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Operant conditioning

Occurs when a behavior in a particular situation is followed by a reinforcing consequence, thus making the behavior more likely to occur in similar circumstances in the future

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Respondent conditioning

A process in which a neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus. The US elicits an unconditioned response. As a result of pairing the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus that will elicit a response similar to the UR, called a conditioned response.

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Respondent behavior

Behavior that is elicited by a prior stimulus. An unconditioned response and a conditioned response are respondent behaviors because they are elicited by unconditioned stimuli and conditioned stimuli, respectively

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Simultaneous conditioning

The process in which the US and the CS are presented at the same time in respondent conditioning trials

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Spontaneous recovery

The process in which, when an operant behavior has been extinguished, the behavior may occur again in the future in the circumstances in which it was previously reinforced

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Trace conditioning

A type of respondent conditioning in which the conditioned stimulus is presented and then the unconditioned stimulus is presented after the termination of the CS

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Unconditioned response

The response that is elicited by an unconditioned stimulus

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Unconditioned stimulus

A stimulus that naturally elicits an unconditioned response because the UR had survival value. No prior conditioning is needed for the US to elicit a UR