Flashcards in Test 2 Deck (32):
Which one can be treated with Cephalexin?
Soft tissue infections.
Respiratory infection( Pneumonia).
Against Staph. + Strep..
Which diseases can be treated by Narrow spectrum Penicillins?
Metritis + Mastitis.
The role of clavulinic acid?
Inhibits ß-lactamase enzyme produced by bacteria( all Gram -ve + Staph.).
Suicide inhibitor of ß-lactamases, so that it's partner can act.
Clavulanic acid + Amoxicillin--> UTI + Respiratory infection + GI infections + Soft tissue infections + Dermatitis + Bite wounds + Osteomyelitis + Mastitis + Lyme-disease.
Toxicity--> ø use in Eq + Rodents.
Ceftiofur-Generation? sp.? Role?
Ceftiofur crystalline-Free Acide (CCFA).
3rd generation Cephalosporin Ab..
Acts against-->GI problems by E.coli + salmonella, Respiratory infection by fastidious bacteria, Systemic infections in Ru + Sus + Eq.
Difference between Amoxicillin and Clavulinic acid:
Amoxicillin--> Broad spectrum penicillin, Gram -ve bacteria are highly resistant.
Clavulanic acid--> ß-lactamase inhibitor, ø antibacterial action on it's own.
What is unique for Cefovecin?
Used for dogs and cats.
SC inj--> Long-acting ( very long 1/2 life); 1 administration lasts 2 weeks (good for aggressive animals).
Used for: UTI, Oral cavity infection, Gingivitis, Skin infection.
What is used to treat anthrax in horses? How is it applied?
Benzyl- penicillin ( IV inj).
What generation of Cephalosporins is the 1st choice against dermatitis?
1st generation cephalosporins, especially Cefalexin.
What do you know about Penethamate?
Narrow spectrum penicillin.
Penethamate is the diethylaminoethyl ester of Benzyl-penicillin.
Is a ß-lactam Ab used in food-producing animals.
Against mastitis, metritis.
Used in cattle, Sus, Eq, goats and sheep.
Crosses blood-milk barrier.
Excreted via milk.
IM ( inj. for treatment of bacterial infections).
What is used with Dihydrostreptomycin?
Procaine-penicillin and Benzyl-penicillin.
Which drug has a long half-life and lasts for 2 weeks?
Cefovecin ( in dogs and cats).
Which drugs are used against Pseudomonas aeuriginosa?
Cefoperazone, Ceftazidine, (3rd generation cephalosporins).
Which drug is used against E.coli enteritis?
Cefoperazone, Ceftiofur( Ru, Sus, Eq).
Which drug works on penicillinase producing Staphy aureus? (causes mastitis)
Penicillinase stable penicillins via intra-mammary infusion, Oxacillin.
Which is ß-lactamase inhibitor?
Clavulinic acid + Amoxicillin.
Sulbactam + Ampicillin.
Tazobactam + Piperacillin.
Drugs used against Lyme disease.
For nervous sytem signs (IV, use for short term): Cefotaxime + Ceftriaxone.
What is Oxacillin used for?
It is used in mastitis caused by penicillinase producing Staph. aureus and Strep.
Give as an intra- mammary infusion ( also dermatitis but has bad oral absorption).
What is the 1º drug against anthrax?
Which Cephalosporin is used to treat supf. dermatitis in dog? Name a drug that can be administrated orally.
Describe Phase II elimination. Name the molecules involved.
The drugs Dextromethorphane (DXM) and Ketoconazole are lipophilic. Only hydrophilic substances can be excreted.
Phase 2- Conjugation catalysed by transferase enzymes: H2O soluble compounds reached; Transport conjugates from the cell ( ATP-dependent efflux transporters).
CYP 450; inducers and inhibitors.
Inducers: increase activity + quantity --> Toxic substances, drugs, plants.
Inhibitors: Ketoconazole, Macrolide ab, Tiamulin, Sulphonamides.
Define T 1/2 alpha and absorption.
T 1/2--> Elimination 1/2-life. The time taken for 50% of any amt of drug to be eliminated from the body.
T 1/2 alpha --> In mins. Distribution phase to tissues ( especially live, kidney, m.)
% of absorbed drug= AUVpo/ AUCiv.
Which enzymes are part of Phase 1 and Phase 2?
Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases.
Esterases, Peptidases, Transferase.
Which penicillin crosses the blood brain barrier?
Cefotaxime and Ceftriaxone.
What Ab is administered for dermatitis in dog and how should you apply it?
Which are the main CYP family?
CYP 1, CYP 2, CYP 3 and CYP 4.
CYP1: theophylline, phenacetin, (benzpyrene, PAH, dioxin).
CYP2: steroids, P4, VIt D3, paracetamol, benzodiazepines, (PAH).
CYP3: Ab, steroids, ethylmorphine.
CYP4: endogenous substrates, FA, arachinonic acid, eicosanoids
Which compound can we use to follow up CYP450 activity after dextromethorphane demethylation?
Name the components of the NADPH system.
Cytochrome P450: monooxygenase (polypeptide chain + heme prosthetic grp)
NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase.
NADPH (é donor) + O2 are essential.
Name the most important CYP family.
CYP 3 ( Ab, steroids, ethylmorphine).
Mechanism of effect of Penicillin?
Blocking cell wall synthesis with the inhibition of synthesis of peptidoglycain structure.
Mode of action of Penicillin?
Time dependent bactericidal.