Test 2 Cardiovascular Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test 2 Cardiovascular Deck (96):
1

large artery

1 m

2

capillary

1mm

3

artery to capillary difference

1:10,000

4

capillaries are ___% open

25

5

venule

5mm

6

flow/flowrate =

volume/time (mL/sec)

7

velocity=

distance/time (m/hour)

8

V (velocity) =

Q (flow) / A (surface area)

9

A (surface a) down = ___ Q (flow) ___ V(velocity)

Q up, V up

10

Mean pressure = which direction?

always drops

11

Largest drop in mean pressure in which segment?

arterioles ( to parallel pathways)

12

Which vessel has highest volume?

veins/venules 64% (stretch)

13

aorta = ____ storage

pressure

14

compliance =

change V/ change P

15

smooth muscle is on

venule, arteriole (NOT capillary)

16

___ liters picked up by lymph daily

4

17

Q (flow) =

change P/R

18

CO =

HR x SV, MAP/TPR

19

Parallel series formula

1/r = 1/r1 + 1/r2.......

20

R ~ (r,n,L?)

n L / r^4

21

Q ~ (r?)

r^4

22

high altitude = __ viscosity

up viscosity

23

wall stress (t) =

P r / μ
P = Transmural press (P in-P out)
μ = wall thickness

24

aneurysm

up r, down μ (wall thick), => up t (wall stress)

25

pacemaker speed vs. reg nerve

slower

26

SA node pacemaker - channel?

I(f), Ca volt, K (TEA) type

27

Ventricular cell - I(f) channel?

NO

28

I(f) channel =

slow steady to depole

29

Pacemaker - Ca voltage =

Ca in - depole

30

Pacemaker - K volt (TEA) type

Repole

31

Parasympathetic cardiac pathway

Vagal nerve --> DMNX/NA --> NTS --> Postganglionic near heart (inhibit Sympa)

32

Sympathetic cardiac pathway

Preganglionic Sympathetic Neurons in brain

33

Ventr cell - Na volt channel

Depole

34

Ventr cell - Ca volt channel

sustain (closes slowly)

35

Ventr cell - K (TEA type) volt channel

repole

36

Ventr cell - K1 channel

open during RPM, close at depole

37

β1 =

up cAMP, increase ventr cell activity

38

biggest effect on heartrate - para or sympa?

Para

39

Reynolds # =

turbulance (distal to occlusion)

40

Vessel - sympa or para

sympa only (tonic), NO para (but indv)

41

Vessel - sympa types (GI, skeletal Muscle)

GI = β1 (constrict), skeletal muscle = β2 (dilate)

42

Baroreceptors = A fibers?

mean pressure change, rapid pressure changes

43

Baroreceptors = C fibers?

Mean pressure change only

44

Eye - cholinergic?

contract (see near)

45

Eye - adrenergic?

relax (see far)

46

CNS - cholinergic?

NO

47

CNS - adrenergic?

α2 decrease (increase at high dose)

48

Sweat - sympathetic?

Ach (but sympa)

49

Sweat - parasympathetic?

NO

50

Fat - Cholinergic?

NO

51

Fat - Adrenergic?

β3 - Lipolysis, β2 - Glycogenolysis

52

Cushing reflex

Blockage , BP up

53

Trigem reflex

BP down (para), then up

54

Valsalva

BP down then up,

55

SA rate

100-120

56

AV rate

80-100

57

Ventr (His, Purkinje) rate

30-50

58

Repole approaching

-

59

S dip coincides with

Action potential in Ventr cell B

60

2nd part of T wave?

from ventr cell B

61

J = (hydro-osmotic pressure formula)

Kf [(Pc (in) - Pi (out)) - (πc - πi)] in - out

62

(Pc-Pi) = +?

fluid out

63

(πc - πi) = +?

fluid in

64

[(Pc (in) - Pi (out)) - (πc - πi)] = + ?

fluid out

65

r up = P __

down

66

Cycle length =

1/HR (HR= 1/CL)
60/HR (HR = 60/CL) remember to convert to seconds!!!

67

cycle shortening = syst or diast shortening?

diastolic shortening

68

Atrial pressure = a wave

atrial contract

69

Atrial pressure = c wave

AV vale bendback, open aortic valve

70

Atrial pressure = v wave

atria fill

71

Aortic/arterial pressure = dicrotic notch?

(b/w systol and diastol) coronary vessel flowback, backflow ventr, rebound of valve

72

Stroke Volume =

EDV - ESV

73

MAP = ? (SP/DP)

1/3 SP + 2/3 DP

74

Pulse Pressure = ?

SP - DP

75

Pressure - atria R/L

4, 6

76

Pressure - R ventr (pulm art)

s 25, d 5/10

77

Pressure - LV/Aorta

s 130, d 5/75

78

Inspiration = ___venous return

up venous return

79

QRS when?

right before Ventr Contraction

80

T wave when?

right before S2

81

LV vs. RV

5x pressure, 3x thicker, 2/3 smaller radius

82

Laplace law

P = t μ / r
t (wall stress)
μ (thickness)
r (radius)

83

Pressure overload? laplace

Concentric hypertrophy
μ (thickness) up
r (radius) down

84

Volume overload? laplace

μ (thickness) down
r (radius) up
P (pressure) down

85

Poiseuille's Law

Q = μ P r^4 / n L

86

cardiac cell size

big, hair size, 150 microns

87

preload =

EDV

88

Afterload =

aortic pressure

89

isometric contraction

no shortening

90

isotonic contraction

shortening

91

Frank Starling Line

optimal stretch for contraction

92

skeletal muscle control by

neuron

93

cardiac muscle control by

neuron, hormone, stretch

94

force of contraction

NOT contractility
=contractility + preload

95

+ ionotropic

up contractility

96

cardiac glycosides =

stop NaK pump, NaCa stops, Ca intracellular rises, contractility up