Test #2 Chapter 23: Cancer Development Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test #2 Chapter 23: Cancer Development Deck (31):

Cell Division-

when one or more cells divide into two and when everything is perfect, it divides live it is supposed to, and the second cell looks just like the first. (and you live a normal healthy life).


What can go wrong sometimes is where the cell divides and changes, wrong shape, maybe larger ect.. and travels somewhere else.

So when we are younger, our cells continue to grow through out our life. Sometimes our cells stop growing, such as in heart muscles, they get larger, but over time there is no more cell division. When we are talking about skin, hair, nails, things like that, it will continue to divide, but in a controlled manner....when everything is perfect.



is just an increase in the size of the cell, doesn’t necessarily mean cancer. It can be normal



is more of a cancer issue, it can be benign or malignant. Hyperplasia is just an increase in the number of cells.


Distal Neoplasia

is a term for new and continued growth that is not needed.


People are genetically predisposed to things. So if someone has a benign brain tumor, why would we need to remove that?

Because it can still grow bigger which can compress and cause issues. It can cause issues with the cranial nerves and vision problems.


Biology of Normal Cells-
Specific Morphology-

use this term to describe that the cell is recognizable, in size and shape, and looks like the parent cell.


Small Nuclear Cytoplasmic Ratio-

means that the nucleus inside is normal shape and size. (Small, not overly large and taking up to much space)


Generation Time-

Refers to one cell dividing into two cells, and the time that it takes for it to do that. ( how long it takes for a cell to divide.)


Suppressor Gene-

Protein that regulates growth cells and only has malignant cancers that get out of control. (so it just kind of replicates on its own)


Biology of Malignant Cells-
Benign Cells-

or tumor cells, are normal cells that are growing in the wrong place. It looks like the tissue that it came from, it continues to function like the tissues that it came from, it is just in the wrong place.


Malignant, or cancer cells,

they lose the appearance of their parent cell. Their Nuclear Cytoplasmic Ratio is increased. It has a larger nucleus within the cell. They have no function, but they are taking nutrients away from that area. This is harmful to whatever area that it is in.


On a normal cell, once it is packed into an area,

it will not grow any more because it knows that it has stuff around it. With malignant cells, they do not care, it will just keep growing and pushing things out of the way.


Cancer Development-

Initiation Phase,
Primary Tumor,
Secondary Tumor,
Blood Born Metastasis, Lymphatic Spread.


Initiation Phase-

During initiation phase, there is damage to your DNA. Whether you have been in the sun to much or smoking, whatever the etiology may be, there was damage to the DNA that starts the process.


Primary Tumor-

It will have a primary tumor site, and the cancer will always be identified by the tissue that it came from. So if it came from breast tissue, lungs, pancreas, sometimes it can stop it if we catch it soon enough. If not, it will metastasize to some place else.

**So if it moves from breast tissue to the lung, it is still breast cancer. Whatever the original origin, that is its name but with mets to the lung.


Secondary Tumor-

After metastasis, a secondary tumor will arrive in another location. Then it can get into the blood and into the lymph system and spread from there.


Cancer Classification-
Osteo =

Melanoma = skin


Cancer Grading-
Grading Malignant tumors-

Gx= Grade Cannot be determined, G1= slow growing, G2= more moderate. G3= Worse and so on G4 it is poorly diffientiated. It is the worst.


T1, T2, T3, T4-



Lymph nodes

N1,N2, N3


All on the M’s

Mx presence of distant mets cant be assessed, M0= no mets M1 Metastisise to someplace else distant.


Staging Of cancers-

Stage 4 is worse than stage 1, we also use this along with the grading.


Cancer Etiology-

The three influences for cancer development are Chemical Carcinogenesis, Tobacco use, Oncoviruses.


Chemical Carcinogens-

chemicals, drugs, radiation.


Tobacco Use-

is the most important preventable carcinogen. People that smoke are at very high risk for cancer.



Virus’s that cause cancer. Alters DNA and leads them down the cancer path.


What if your patient smokes and drinks and says that they can only quit one. Which one would you educate them to quit?



Seven Warning Signs of Cancer= CAUTION

Changes in Bowel Or Bladder Habits

A Sore that does not Heal

Unusual bleeding or discharge

Thickening of the breast or lump

Indigestion or difficulty swallowing

Obvious changes in a wart or mole

Nagging cough or hoarseness

Patients sometimes do not know this, so this would be a good thing to educate them on especially when they start talking to you about what is going on with them. Something like “Ohh what do you mean you have had a cough for 6 months, what do you mean?” This is something that you need to address to help you figure out what is important.


Primary Cancer Prevention-

Primary cancer prevention are avoiding things that you know will cause cancer such as: Smoking, Tanning Beds, Too much sun in general, asbestos in the workplace, and getting vaccinations (Gardicil to prevent cervical cancer.) to help avoid cancer. (There are people who get lung cancer who never smoked)


Secondary Cancer Prevention-

Secondary cancer prevention are things such as: Yearly mamograms, 40 and older ( will not prevent but you can catch it earlier to cure it faster) colonoscopy once you turn 50,

They also have a gene mutation test- BRCA1 and 2 gene (they draw your blood to see if you have this gene)

BRCA1 gene increases your risk for breast and ovarian cancer,

(BRCA-2 gene is just an increased risk for Breast cancer).