Test #2 Chapter 35 Assessment of the Cardiovascular system Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test #2 Chapter 35 Assessment of the Cardiovascular system Deck (34):

Cardio Vascular System

heart- blood vessels- veins and arteries.

Supplies nutrients and oxygen to your tissues and organs

This is what we call perfusion


What is the myocardium

This is what we call the heart muscle itself.

It needs to receivenutrients in order to pump blood and nutrients out to the body.

In order for this to happen, the arteries have to be patent so that the blood may flow through efficiently, to do what it needs to do.


Cardiovascular disease is the number _____ cause of death in the USA. Around 200,000 people die each day from it.



What is the heart?

it is a fist sized muscular organ that sits in the middle of your chest that is protected by the pericardium. This is a little thin area around the heart.


Where is the heart located?

It is located within the mediasteinum which is between the lungs.


How much blood is pumped during each heartbeat?

Each heartbeat pumps 50 ml of blood or 5L a min.

Running or any strenuous activity may double or even tripple the amount that the heart pumps.


Blood Flow through the heart:

From the inferior and superior vena cava
Into the Right atrium
Through the Tricuspid Valve
Into the Right Ventricle
Through the pulmonic valve
Into the pulmonary Artery
Into the lungs
Into the pulmonary Veins
Into the Left Atrim
Through the Mitral Valve
into the left ventricle
through the aortic valve
into the aorta
and out to the body


Blood passively flows from the right atrium to the right ventricle via the ______ valve.


This is Diastole


The right ventricle is muscular, so it is going to pump the blood. Once the tricuspid valve closes, the pulmonic valve opens and the right ventricle pumps the blood through it. The blood goes to

the lungs via the pulmonary artery and gets oxygenated. Then it comes back to the heart via the pulmonary vein.


From the pulmonary vein, blood flows into the

left atrium


Name the AV valves

tricuspid and Mitral

They separate the Atriums from the Ventricles on both sides of the heart.


Name the semilunar valves

pulmonic and aortic

They keep blood from flowing backwards into the ventricles


What are AV valves and Semilunar valves responsible for

They are responsible maintaining forward flow of blood. They keep the blood going in the right direction

They open and close related to volume and pressure within the chambers.


Which side of the heart is the Pulmonic Valve on?



Which side of the body is the Aortic Valve on?



How does the heart iself receive nutrients?

The heart (myocardium) receives blood through the:

- left and right coronary arteries
- Circumflex artery
- Left (Obtuse) Marginal Artery
- Diagonal Arteries
- Left Anterior Decending Artery
- Posterior decending artery
- and right marginal artery (acute)

They originate from the aorta, and go into different directions in order to fully perfuse the heart


Which are the main arteries that perfuse the heart?

The main arteries are the left and right coronary arteries.

So with coronary artery disease, plaque starts building up in these arteries and it makes it hard for the blood to pump through and get where it needs to in order to function.


Mean arterial pressure must be at least _____ mmHg to maintain adequate blood flow through the coronary arteries and to perfuse major organs such as the brain heart and kidneys

60 mmHg


True or False

A patients map can be low or high?



What does it mean if the patients MAP is low?

That the patients vital organs are not being adequately perfused.

They would have S/S of
- decreased urine output
- Altered Mental Statuse (confused)


What does the P wave on an EKG represent

Atrium Contracting


What does the QRS wave on an EKG represent?

Ventricle Contraction


What does a normal sinus rhythm mean on a EKG?

means that everything is doing what it is supposed to be doing, heart rate is within the normal range.

certain medical conditions can make a person have arrhymias or disarrhythmias. So the electrical conductivity of the heart is not correct. This will make the rhythm look different on an EKG


What does the T wave on an EKG represent?

T wave is the resting phase of the heart on an EKG


Each beat of the heart is represented by ______ waves



How do you determine a patients HR

Heart rate is the number of times that a ventricle contracts.

Normal Heart Rate is 60-100 beats per minute


When a person is out of the normal heart rate range, what are we worried about?

whether they are symptomatic or not

Interventions depend on what the patients symptoms are


When a patients HR increases what else also increases?

Their Oxygen Demand


What nervous system plays a part in whether HR goes up or not?

Autonomic Nervous System


What would you chart after checking a persons HR?

The number of beats per min

How you checked the HR (stethoscope ect)

And whether it was regular or irregular


How long do you count a regular HR?

30 seconds then multiply x 2


How long do you count an irregular HR?

1 Minute

When you do not know your patient, count for a whole minute anyway. Sometimes people can switch from regular in the morning to irregular in the afternoon


Where does electrical conduction in the heart start?

SA Node.

Then it goes to the AV node to the bundle of HIS., right and left bundle branches, then perkinje fibers.


What happens when you have an issue with the P wave?

With things like Atrial Fibrulation, they lose their atrial kick.

the heartbeat is going to be irregular and there will be issues that show up on an EKG strip.