Test 2 (Chapter 6+) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test 2 (Chapter 6+) Deck (89):
1

A relatively permanent change in behavior resulting from experience

Learning

2

Learning about a stimulus such as a sight or sound in the external world

Non-Associative Learning

3

Learning the relationship between 2 pieces of information

Associative Learning

4

Learning by watching others- we learn/change a behavior after watching a person engage in that behavior

Observational Learning

5

Starts off neutral and leads to a learned response

Conditioned Stimulus

6

When your fear/phobia eventually goes away

Extinction

7

What is the problem with extinction?

There is spontaneous recovery (reappearance of fear)

8

Reverses the effects of classical conditioning

Counter Conditioning

9

Link a 2nd stimulus to the conditioned stimulus

Second-Order Conditioning

10

Associating illness with the last thing they ate- can't stand smell or taste anymore because the person was sick at the time

Taste Aversion

11

Behaviors which lead to desirable consequences tend to be repeated

Law of Effect

12

Anything that strengthens a behavior or makes it more likely to occur

Reinforcement

13

Anything that weakens a behavior or makes it less likely to occur

Punishment

14

Food/Water, avoiding pain, necessary for survival

Primary Reinforcement

15

Things that you learn to like

Secondary Reinforcement

16

When your behavior gives you something that you like

Positive Reinforcement

17

Takes away what you don't want
Ex) taking aspirin to get rid of a headache

Negative Reinforcement

18

The behavior has ended

Escape Conditioning

19

You can't prevent something from happening

Avoidance Conditioning

20

Anything that weakens a behavior

Punishment

21

Factors leading to effective punishment

-punishment must be on time
-punishment must be consistent
-punishment needs to "fit the crime"
-punishment should stand out compared to other interactions

22

Reward successive approximations of the desired behavior

Shaping

23

Telling the difference of when an award is available or not

Discrimination

24

When you believe behavior leads to an outcome, but it really doesn't

Superstitious Behavior

25

No longer reward a behavior

Extinction

26

Linking a series of simple behaviors together to link a more complex behavior

Chaining

27

Occurs when you reward every desired response; leads to rapid acquisition, but isn't good for maintaining behaviors over long periods of time

Continuous Reinforcement

28

Participant must make a certain # of responses before receiving reward

Fixed Ratio

29

Participant is rewarded for 1st response after specific period of time

Fixed Interval

30

On average, participant is rewarded for 1st response after specific period of time; random

Variable Interval

31

On average, participant is rewarded for making a certain # of responses
*how slot machines work

Variable Ratio

32

When you believe your behavior has no effect on the outcome/consequences

Learned Helplessness

33

Learning by watching others

Vicarious Conditioning

34

Kids who watched the kids play w/ the doll more aggressively will then act aggressively towards the doll

Bobo Doll Experiment

35

Your own personal memories; happen to you directly

Episodic Memory

36

Common types of knowledge

Semantic Memory

37

Motor skills/muscle memory
Ex) tie shoe, riding a bike, driving

Procedural Memory

38

Inability to form new memories

Anterograde Amnesia

39

Can't remember things from the past

Retrograde Amnesia

40

What is the model of memory discussed in class?

Information Processing Model

41

One sense is allowed through, the others are reduced or eliminated

Sensory Gating

42

Pay attention to one thing, but ignoring the other; fine tunes
ex) @ a party and there are loud noises, but you can still hear the person you're talking to

Selective Attention

43

Increases capacity of short term memory by increasing how much information can be held in each unit of short term memory

Chunking

44

An example of this would be a multiple choice test

Test of Recognition

45

2 Types of Recall

-cued: given hints
-free: no hints/clues given

46

It fades away

Decay Theory

47

Things are pushed out/lost before they become permanent

Displacement Theory

48

Memory retrieval problem that occurs when older info. prevents or interferes with the retrieval of newer info.
ex) calling your bf John instead of Joan who was your old bf

Proactive Interference

49

Memory retrieval problem that occurs when newer info. prevents or interferes with the retrieval of older info.

Retroactive Interference

50

Prevents you from making a memory permanent

Lack of Consolidation

51

Cramming everything all at once

Massed Practice

52

Breaking things up
*this way is better than massed practice

Distributed Practice

53

Continuing to rehearse something when it's mastered

Overlearning

54

Outside world; surroundings

Context Dependent Learning

55

Biological state
ex) cinnamon gum was given to students who were studying for a test and then half the kids were given the gum during the test--- they did better than kids who didn't receive any gum for the test

State Dependent Learning

56

Memory tricks; can include rhyming

Mneumonics

57

Visually place new items in an area with landmarks

Method of Loci

58

Form a word or phrase from the initial letters of new words
ex) NASA, SCUBA, PEMDAS

Acronym

59

Form a sentence from the new items

Acrostic

60

Biological rhythms which occur approximately every 24 hrs.

Circadian Rhythms

61

Highest activity during daylight
ex) jetlag is far worse when you're on the way to somewhere with a new time difference than it is coming home

Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (SCN)

62

Sleep is an adaptive response by a particular species to its environment

Circadian Rhythm

63

Allows us to make memories permanent, reinforces memory

Consolidation Theory

64

When dream occurs, takes about 90 min. to reach this process

REM (Rapid Eye Movement)

65

Lightest stage of sleep

Stage 1

66

Deepest stage of sleep

Stage 4

67

Becoming aware that you’re dreaming while you’re still dreaming

Lucid Dreams

68

What you think the dream means (your account/description)

Manifest

69

The true unconscious meaning of the dream

Latent

70

Random activity in the brain that’s thrown together to form a story line

Activation Synthesis Theory

71

The inability to sleep

Insomnia

72

When you wake up hours before you need to be; can be treated with drugs

Termination Insomnia

73

Excessive sleepiness during normal waking hours, stress related, fall into REM, treated with stimulants

Narcolepsy

74

When you stop breathing during sleep

Sleep Apnea

75

Reacting to internal dream state (oftentimes violent actions); 2nd half of the night

Ex) dreams they’re being chased, then gets up and starts running

Rem Behavior Disorder

76

When does sleep walking and talking occur?

During the 1st half of the night

77

A bad dream

Nightmare

78

Hollering, screaming, or flailing arms due to a bad dream (Stage 4)

Night Terror

79

What theory suggests that all behavior begins with a need?

Drive Reduction Theory

80

A requirement of some material (food/water) that’s essential for survival of the organism

Need

81

Psychological tension and physical arousal arising when there’s a need that motivates the organism to act in order to fulfill the need and reduce the tension

Drive

82

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

~self actualization: achieving personal dreams + aspirations

~self esteem: good self opinion, accomplishments + reputation

~love+belonging: friendship, acceptance

~safety+security: security, protection, freedom from threats

~psychological: food/water, warmth, oxygen, sleep

83

Want both equally- can only have one and you must decide

Approach-Approach Conflict

84

Don’t want either; such as punch in face/punch in gut— figure out which is less

Avoidance-Avoidance

85

One situation, one outcome has both positive + negative outcome to it

Ex) nice guy, but he smells

Approach-Avoidance

86

Condition in which the body weight of a person is 20% or more

Obesity

87

Condition in which a person reduces eating to the point that a weight loss of 15% below the ideal body weight or more occurs

Anorexia

88

What is the lateral hypothalamus associated with?

Little hunger

89

What is very much hunger/obesity associated with?

Ventromedial Hypothalamus