Test 2 - Chapters 10-12 Flashcards Preview

Biology 107 > Test 2 - Chapters 10-12 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Test 2 - Chapters 10-12 Deck (79):
1

_________ - Instructions for producing a trait (Found on DNA)

Gene

2

_________ - Location of a gene on a chromosome

Locus

3

_________ - The various molecular forms of a gene form the same trait

Allele

4

_________ - Two genes per trait

Diploid Cell

5

_________ - One gene per trait

Haploid Cell

6

_________ - Both alleles are the same

Homozygous

7

_________ - Both alleles are different

Heterozygous

8

_________ - The allele that covers up the expression of the other allele

Dominant Allele

9

_________ - The allele that is hidden by the other allele (by the dominant allele)

Recessive Allele

10

_________ - How the genes are expressed (what you see - dimple)

Phenotype

11

_________ - The sum of the genes (the way you write down the allele sybols - RR, Rr, rr)

Genotype

12

_________ - parent generation (first generation when we start our crosses)

P generation

13

_________ - first generation of offspring from the P generation (Kids of P generation)

F1 generation

14

_________ - second generation of offspring from the P generation (Grandkids of P generation)

F2 generation

15

Gregor _________ - Father of modern genetics

Mendel

16

Mendels Theory of _________

Segregation

17

_________ - states that diploid organisms inherit two genes per trait and during meiosis, gene pairs segregate so that each gamete will receive only one gene per trait

Theory of segregation

18

Theory of segregation - states that diploid organisms inherit _________ genes per trait and during meiosis, gene pairs segregate so that each _________ will receive only one gene per trait

-two
-gamete

19

_________ crosses have two parents that are true-breeding for contrasting forms of a trait i.e. AA and aa

Monohybrid

20

_________ - the dominant allele can not completely cover up the expression of the recessive allele (blending - white flower + red flower = pink flower)

Incomplete Dominance

21

_________ - Both alleles are expressed as dominant in heterozygous individuals

Co-Dominance

22

_________ - Whenever there are two forms of alleles per trait

Multiple alleles

23

_________ - occurs when a single gene affects unrelated aspects of the phenotype

Pleiotrophy

24

_________ Inheritance - There are a number of different pairs of alleles that combine to produce the trait

Polygenic

25

_________ Genes - Genes that are found on the sex chromosomes

Sex-linked

26

_________ Crosses (Double Factor Crosses)

Dihybrid

27

_________ - Instructions for producing traits

Gene

28

_________ - The gene form that can cover up the expression of the other gene form

Dominant

29

_________ - The gene form that is being hidden by the other gene form

Recessive Allele

30

_________ - The study of similarities and differences in genes between populations

Population Genetics

31

_________ - The way genes are expressed, what you can see

Phenotype

32

_________ - Varieties of a species that may have been produced through artificial selection by humans

Breeds

33

_________ evolve not individuals

Populations

34

Populations are members of the same _________

species

35

A population exhibits variations among the individuals but they hold certain morphological,_________, and behavioral traits in common

physiological

36

_________ - All the genes in the entire population

Gene Pool

37

Environment can affect _________ not genotype

phenotypes

38

_________ - A measure of the abundance of each kind of allele in a population

Allele frequencies

39

Evolution can be detected - By a change in allele _________ over time

frequency

40

Five conditions that are necessary in order for a population to be _________ (not evolving)

1) No mutations are occurring
2) The population is getting larger (things don’t change quickly)
3) The population is isolated from other populations of the same species
4) All members of the population survive long enough to mate & reproduce
5)There is no sexual selection (mating is random)

stable

41

_________ - is a change in allele frequency

Microevolution

42

Microevolution - is a change in allele frequency that is brought on by

i. Mutation
ii. Genetic flow
iii. Genetic drift
iv. _________
v. Non-random mating

Natural selection

43

_________ are heritable changes in DNA that can alter the way genes are expressed

Mutations

44

_________ are random

Mutations

45

Mutations can be neutral, _________, harmful, or lethal

beneficial

46

_________ mutation - Does not hurt or help you

Neutral

47

_________ mutation - Increase survival of individual

Beneficial

48

_________ mutation - Decrease survival of individual

Harmful

49

_________ mutation - Kills you

Lethal

50

_________ - The movement of genes

Genetic Flow (Gene Flow)

51

Genes move with _________

individuals

52

_________ - Leaving population

Emigration

53

_________ - Moving into population

Immigration

54

_________ may increase or decrease variations between populations

Genetic drift

55

_________ - A few members of a population leave the original population to start a new population

Founder effect

56

_________ - Some stressful event greatly reduces the size of a population leaving only a few members to start the population over

Bottleneck

57

_________ - Accounts for more changes in allele frequencies than any other micro-evolutionary process

Natural Selection

58

-Natural Selection-

Some individuals are more successful - thank others in surviving & reproducing because of their _________

genes

59

-Natural Selection-

The _________ of those individuals - That reproduce will _________ in frequencies in populations

-alleles
-increase

60

_________ :
Occurs when one member of a is not equally likely to mate with any other member
-Some females choose who to mate with & male competes to be chosen

Nonrandom Mating

61

_________ Selection is nonrandom mating

Sexual

62

_________ Selection - Selects for the average phenotype

Stabilizing

63

_________ Selection - Favors or selects for extreme phenotypes

Disruptive

64

_________ - The process of generating a new species

Speciation

65

_________ - Genes in a population became different over time

Genetic Divergence

66

- The movement of an entire species from one location to another. Moving then coming back

Migration

67

_________ - Local population

Deme

68

_________ - is the change in a population over generations of time.

Evolution

69

Individuals cannot evolve, only _________ evolve.

populations

70

_________ - Attempted to explain the natural world by making direct observations

Aristotle

71

_________ - The study of the past & present distribution of organisms on earth

Biogeography

72

_________ - evidence of pre-existing organisms that have gone extinct

fossil

73

_________ explanation-
Perhaps species originated in more than one place & speices became modified overtime

de Buffon's

74

George Cuvier's Theory of _________

Catastrophism

75

George Cuvier's Theory of Catastrophism:

He believed in original creation of all _________

organism

76

Lamarck's Theory of Inheritance of Acquired _________

Characteristics

77

Lamarck believed that simple forms had changed into more complex ones through a built in drive for _________ in order to move up the great chain of being.

perfection

78

Charles Darwin's Theory of _________

Natural Selection

79

_________ - the differential survival and reproduction of individuals with certain inherited traits

Natural Selection