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What are the factors to consider for non-verbal communication?

eye-contact, proximity(spatial), Kinesics (gestures), paralinguistics (tone, pitch), facial expressions, body language.


What are confirming behaviors?

Signal endorsement, recognition, and acknowledgement to reciever


What are clarity behaviors?

how clearly the receiver perceives the teacher, leader, or coach.


What is Active Listening?

Ask questions, paraphrase, attend to main and supporting ideas, acknowledge and respond, give appropriate feedback, and pay attention to the speakers total communication (verbal and non-verbal)


What are the keys to active listening?

Mentally prepare to listen, don't mistake hearing for listening, paraphrase what the speaker said.


What is Empathy?

a person's ability to perceive, recognize, and understand the feelings, behaviors, intentions, and attitudes, of others; empathy is an important prerequisite to effective. communication


What is Sender Failures

Poorly transmitted messages (ambiguity, inconsistency)


What is receiver failures?

Failure to listen carefully (misinterpretation)


What is a Group?

Two or more people who interact and exert mutual influence on each other and share the following characteristics:
A collective sense of identitiy
Distinctive roles
structures modes of communication
Group norms


What is the Linear Perspective?

Forming: familiarization, formation of interpersonal relationships, development of team structure

Storming: rebellion, resistance to the leader and to control by the group, interpersonal conflict

Norming: Development of solidarity and cooperation; group conflicts resolved

Performing: channeling of energies for team success


The Cyclical (Life Cycle) Perspective

Development of groups is similar to the life cycle -- birth, growth, and death

Emphasis is on the terminal phase of the group's existence

This model is especially relevant for groups and teams that last 10-15 weeks


The Pendular Perspective

Shifts occur in interpersonal relationships during the growth and development of groups

Groups do no progress through linear phases


What are the stages of group development in the Pendular Perspective Module?

Differentiation and conflict
Resolution and cohesion
Differentiation and conflict


Group Roles

involve behaviors required or expected of a person occupying a certain position


Formal Roles

(Coaches, instructors, captains) are dictated by the nature and structure of the organization


Informal Roles

Evolve from the group's dynamics or interactions among the group members


Group Norms

A norm is a level of performance, pattern of behavior, or belief

Leaders need to establish positive group norms or standards (especially standards or norms of productivity

positive norms are important to establish


Ringelmann Effect

The phenomenon by which individual performance decreases as the number of people in the group increases


Social Loafing

When individuals within a group or team put forth less than 100% effort due to loss of motivation


What are some conditions that increase Social Loafing?

an individual's output cannot be independently evaluated

the task is perceived to be low in meaningfulness

An individual's personal involvement in the task is low

A comparison against group standards is not possible

Other individuals contributing to the collect effort are strangers

teammate or coworkers are seen as high in ability

individual team members perceive their contribution to the outcome as redundant

The individual is competing against what he or she believes to be a weaker opponent.


What is competition?

A social process that occurs when rewards are given to people for how well their performance compares with the performances of others during the same task or when participating in the same event


What are the four (mental) stages of the competition processing?

Stage 1: situation in which performance is compared with some standard or to another.

Stage 2: The subjective competitive situation is how the person perceives, accepts, and appraises the objective competition situation.

Stage 3: Response is whether a person approaches or avoids an objective competitive situation

Stage 4: consequences is whether a person approaches, or avoids an objective competitive situation


Is competition a good, or bad thing?

not a good or bad thing, it is neutral. whether it leads to aggression or cooperation depends on the social environment and the way the performers view competition.


What is cooperation?

Asocial process in which performance is evaluated and rewarded in terms of the collective achievement of a group of people working together to reach a particular goal.


Competitive mean --> competitive ends

solo competition for a winner. i.e. king of the hill. 100-yrd dash


Cooperative means --> competitive ends

Collective team cooperation to produce a single team win. i.e. soccer, bball, etc.


Individual means --> individual ends

trying to perform better than your previous time. i.e. you are trying to "out-do" yourself.


Cooperative means --> individual ends

if two individuals practice together to perform better at an event. i.e. two individuals hike together in preparation for one of them to beat his time.


cooperative means --> cooperative endss

everyone works together for a collective goal. i.e. keeping a volleyball from hitting the ground.


What is Reinforcement?

the use of rewards and punishment, which increases or decreases the likelihood of a similar response occurring in the future.