Test #2 Review Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test #2 Review Deck (70):
1

Nonpolar molecules

not soluble in water because water molecules cannot surround them in a hydrogen-bonded network

2

Hydrophobic molecules

repel water and tend to clump together when added to water, thus they do not dissolve (repel water)

3

Hydrophilic molecules

molecules mix easily with water; they may or may not dissolve (attract water)

4

Mercury

has the highest surface tension compared to water

5

States of water

Liquid - hydrogen bonds are continually forming and reforming
gas - water molecules gain enough energy to escape as water vapor
Solid - ice and snow are formed as crystals because the hydrogen bonds hold water molecules apart in lattice during freezing

6

Mass vs. Weight

Mass = the amount of substance something contains
Weight = the force of gravity acting on mass

7

Evaporation

water vapor

8

pH scale

a scale that measures the concentration of hydrogen ions (H) in a solution on a scale of 0-14 which is divided into 3 parts
0 = Acidic (releases hydrogen in water)
7 = Neutral
14 = Alkaline (removes hydrogen from water)

9

Organic Molecule

any molecule that contains carbon (C) as a "backbone"

10

Polymers

Larger carbohydrates, proteins, some lipids and all nucleic acids

11

energy

the ability to do work(put mass into motion)

12

Potential energy

stored energy available to do work

13

Kinetic energy

energy being used to do work

14

Mechanical energy

energy involved in motion ex: movement, sound, touch

15

Chemical energy

for biologists, anything associated with metabolism

16

Radiant energy

energy moves through space as wave, light, x-rays, radio waves, microwaves and heat

17

Thermodynamics

science that studies the conversion of energy and its relationship to heat

18

Second law of thermodynamics

all energy transformations are inefficient

The universe has a tendency to become more disordered

every reaction loses some energy as a disorganized form of heat called entropy(disorder)

19

First law of thermodynamics (law of conservation of energy)

energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be converted to other forms

energy can be changed from one form to another

every form of energy in the universe can be converted to heat

20

Glucose

the most abundant simplest form of metabolic fuel on earth (simple sugar, carb)

21

Anabolic reactions

requires input of energy
builds complex molecules from simpler ones
example: photosynthesis

22

Catabolic reactions

energy is released
breaks down complex molecules into simpler ones

23

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

a chemical "spring" that:
stores energy in the bonds between the phosphate groups
is produced in large amounts by mitochondria, smaller amounts in cytoplasm
ATP has a short life it cannot be stored

24

Oxidation

substance loses electrons and energy

25

Reduction

substance gains electron and energy

26

Cellular respiration

A cell based process that manufactures ATP(cellular energy)

27

Aerobic Cellular Respiration

with air
the reason we eat drink and breathe

28

Biomolecules

molecules that are unique to living cells
carbon forms the framework of biomolecules

carbs
proteins
lipids
nucleic acids

29

Matter

Anything that has mass and occupies space

30

Element

A pure substance with distinctive physical and chemical properties
it cannot be broken down to other substances by ordinary chemical means

31

Atom

is the smallest unit of an element that has all the unique chemical properties of that element

32

Proton
Electron
Neutron

proton positive charge (+)
Electron negative charge (-)
Neutron lacks electrical charge

33

Electron Shells

a region where negatively charged electrons move around the nucleus

34

Atomic number

the number of protons in an atom's nucleus

35

Atomic mass number

the total number of protons and neutrons in an atom's nucleus

36

Elemental symbol

1 or 2 letter abbreviation of an elements name

37

Isotopes

have the same number of protons and electrons but differ in the number of neutrons

38

Radioisotopes

have unstable nuclei that decay into simpler forms, releasing radiation

39

Molecule

a particle formed by 2 or more atoms

40

Compound

a molecule formed of 2 or more elements

41

Covalent bonding

sharing 1 or more electrons

42

Ionic bonding

giving up or receiving 1 or more electrons

43

Non polar covalent

electrons are shared equally so the molecule has no overall electrical charge Example oil

44

Polar covalent

electrons are not shared equally but are not given away or accepted completely so the molecule has weak regions of charge example water

45

Ion

any charged atom or molecule

46

Salts

held together by ionic bonds forming crystals

47

Chemical compound

a substance that contains atoms from 2 or more different elements in a precise ratio

48

Chemical formula

summarizes the number and type of atoms in a molecule or ionic compound

49

Chemical reaction equation

shorthand method of showing the general process as atoms and molecules interact

50

Hydrogen bond

a weak attraction between a hydrogen atom with a slight positive charge and a neighboring atom with a slight negative charge

51

Cohesion

the ability of molecules to stick together

52

Adhesion

the polarity of water also allows it to "stick" to other polar surfaces without dissolving them

53

Surface tension

a force that occurs at liquid air surface. It is the resistance of a liquid to separate

54

Solution

mixture in which 1 or more substances is uniformly distributed in another

55

Solute

Substance dissolved in fluid

56

Solvent

Fluid in which a solute is dissolved

57

Glyolysis

the process of breaking sugar
always occurs in the cytoplasm
1st step in the oxidation of glucose molecule in ACR in anaerobic cellular respiration
input: glucose + 2 ATP
Output: Pyruvate, NADH and a few ATP

58

Krebs Cycle

takes place in the mitochondrion
stars and ends with the same substance
produces small amount of ATP but many temporary energy carriers (NADH and FADH)
input: pyruvate and special enzyme called acetyl coenzyme A
output: NADH, FADH, few ATP molecules, CO2

59

Oxidative phosphorylation

using energy from electrons removed from food (oxidation) to make ATP (phosphorylation)
occurs in mitochondrion
Input: NADH and FADH2, O2
output: 32 ATP molecules for each glucose, H20 from reduction of O2

60

Anaerobic Cellular Respiration

uses a final electron acceptor other than 02
ATP yield varies with the electron acceptor but it is always lower than aerobic respiration usually only the 2 ATP produced by glycolysis

61

Fermentation

Fermenters acquire ATP only from glycolysis
no krebs cycle
only produces 2 ATP

62

Alcohol Fermentation

yeasts in bread
fermented beverages

63

Lactic acid fermentation

yogurt
human muscle cells (accumulation of lactic acid may cause cramps) this is a very short lived process, the cells must have oxygen restored quickly or they will die

64

Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

Both produce ATP
Photosynthesis uses sunlight to make ATP
Cellular Respiration uses energy generated from food to make ATP

65

Photosynthesis

all life depends on photosynthesis
Solar energy harnessed
converted into chemical energy
by-product oxygen essential to aerobic organisms
pigment molecules capture the sun's energy

66

Visible light

part of the electromagnetic spectrum used for photosynthesis (and that you use to see)

67

Pigment

ANY substance that absorbs certain wavelenghs of light and reflects others

all photosynthetic autotrophs have Chlorophyll A

68

Process of photosynthsis

1) light dependent reaction
takes place in light in the thylakoid membrane
produces ATP (energy) and NADPH (electron carriers)
2) light independent reaction (requires products of #1)
a cyclic reaction sequence that uses the energy from #1 to ultimately produce glucose (food)

69

Carbon fiation

CO2 combines with an existing sugar (RuBP)

70

CR and PTS
cycle of life

Mitochondria puts out CO2(carbon dioxide) and H2O (water)
Plants put out C2H12O (glucose) and O2 (oxygen)