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Flashcards in test 2 study 2 Deck (62):
1

when do the beginnings of language occur and what are some examples ?

they occur at birth
cooing, laughter, replicated babbling, vocal play, onset of single word utterances

2

use of sound in a repetitive manner occurs when the _______ becomes effective

audiotory feedback loop

3

hearing/ perception of sound stimuli;
auditory processing (the brain organizing and understanding the stimuli)

input: audiotory development

4

organizing the sounds and speech
production of auditory sound/ speech and language

output: speech production and spoken language

5

development of oral communication

-2-4mo old repeats vowel-like sounds;
- 5mo old CV sequences begin
-9-10 mo glottal sounds reduced and alveolar sounds are produced
12 mo= first words

6

mother's (caregiver) feedback of child's sounds lays groundwork for the first_____

word production

7

the ability to perceive the presence or absence of sound

detection

8

involves the ability to determine whether two stimuli are the same or different. for example, these can be two environmental sounds, two speech sounds, two words, two phrase, 2 sentences, or 2 song/ rhymes

discrimination

9

involves the child's ability to identify what has been labeled or name, may be called recognition

identification

10

highest level of auditory processing. the term is generally used when talking about understanding the meaning of the auditory input and application to known information, experiences, and language

comprehension

11

there are periods of development in which an organism is programmed to receive and use certain types of stimuli (the optimal period)

the theory of critical periods

12

in speech and language development, language input must be experienced at a certain stage or it becomes increasingly difficult for utilization of emergent language skills

optimal periods

13

belief in _______is supported by the fact that neural pathways are build by age 3 years and they are difficult to "rewire" after the age of 3

critical periods

14

what marks the last milestone for optimum acquisition of language

puberty

15

the brain's ability to reorganize itself by forming new neural connection throughout life
-- allows the neurons in the brain to compensate for injury and disease and to addicts their activities in response to new situations or to changes in their environment

neuroplasticity

16

at birth a baby will have how many neurons?

100 billion neurons

17

in the first 3 years of life, the brain forms connections between these neurons called

synapses

18

by age 3, the brain has formed about how many connections?

1000 trillion connections

19

hearing loss eventually impacts / causes :

-delayed speech and language development
- learning problems
-reduced academic achievement
-social isolation and poor self concept
- impacts vocational choices

20

____is an ability/ skill that is achieved by most children by a certain age; can involve physical, social, emotional, cognitive, and communication skills

developmental milestone

21

early speech and language intervention can help children be more successful with

reading
writing
schoolwork
interpersonal relationships

22

-startles to loud noises
-quiets or smiles when spoken to
-seems to recognize your voice and quiets if crying
- increases or decreases sucking behavior in response to sound

birth to 3 months old hearing and understanding milestones

23

-makes pleasure sounds
-cries differently from different needs
-smiles when sees you

birth to 3 months old talking milestones

24

-moves eyes in direction of sounds
- responds to changes in tone of your voice
- notices toys that make sounds
- pays attention to music

4-6 months hearing and understanding milestones

25

-babbling sounds
-chuckles and laughs
-vocalizes excitement and displeasure
- gurgling sounds

4-6 months talking milestones

26

-enjoys games like peek a boo
-turns and looks in direction of sounds
-listens when spoken to
- recognizes words for common items
-begins to respond to requests

7 months- 1 year hearing and understanding milestones

27

-babbling has both long and short groups of sounds
-uses speech or nondrying sounds
-uses gestures to communicate
-imitates different speech sounds
-has one or two words

7 months- 1 year talking milestones

28

-points to a few body parts when asked
-follows smoke commands and understands simple questions
-listens to simple stories
-points to pictures in a book

1-2 years hearing and understanding milestones

29

-says more words every month
- uses some one or two word questions
-puts two words together
uses many different consonant sounds

1-2 years talking milestones

30

-understands differences in meaning
-follows two requests
-listens to and enjoys hearing stories for longer periods of time

2-3 years hearing and understanding milestone

31

-has a word for almost everything
-using two or 3 words to talk about and ask for things
-uses K G F T D and N sounds
-speech is understood by familiar listeners most of the ti,e
-often asks for directs attention to objects by naming them

2-3 years talking milestones

32

- hears you when you call from another room
- hears television or radio at the same time
- answers simple who what where why questions

3-4 years hearing and understanding milestones

33

-talks about activities at school or at friends homes
-people outside of the family usually understand child's speech
-uses a lot of sentences that have 4 or more words
- usually talks easily without repeating syllables or words

3-4 years talking milestones

34

-pays attention to a short story and answers simple questions about them
-hears and understands most of what is said at home and in school

4-5 years hearing and understanding milestones

35

-uses sentences that give details
- tells stories that stick to topic
-says most sounds correctly
- says rhyming words
-names some letters and numbers
-uses the same grammar as the rest of the family

4-5 years talking milestones

36

_______is a procedure that allows us to examine functioning of the middle ear system ; not a test of hearing sensitivity

tympanometry

37

does not require the patient to actively participate

objective

38

requires the patient to actively participate

subjective

39

tympanometry is measured using a ______in which a probe tip is inserted into the ear canal and data is collected from each ear individually

tympanometer

40

the data that is collected is plotted on a graph known as a ________and then compared to normative data

tympanogram

41

tympanometry is based on 3 physical principles

pressure
compliance
ear canal volume

42

_____in tympanometry referes to how much _____is in the middle ear cavity. it is plotted on the horizontal (x axis) of the tympanogram;

PRESSURE

43

pressure is measured in

decaPascals (daPa)

44

what is a normal atmospheric pressure?

0daPA

45

abnormal pressure may be indicative of

eustachian tube dysfunction the beginning or ending stage of an ear infection

46

generally -150daPA or greater ias

abnormal pressure

47

refers to the amount of mobility of the tympanic membrane ; measured in milliliters

compliance

48

compliance is plotted on the ___________ axis of the tympanogram

vertical (y axis)

49

what is normal compliance in children?

0.2 - 0.9 ml

50

what is normal compliance in adults

0.3 - 1.4 ml

51

_______is a measurement of the physical volume of the ear canal; measured in ml

ear canal volume ECV

52

what info does the ECV provide??

info regarding outer ear pathology, tympanic membrane perforation, pressure equalization tube patency

53

ear canal volume ranges for children

0.4- 1.0 ml

54

ear canal volume ranges for adults

0.6- 1.5 ml

55

all measure within the normal range
indicates normal middle ear function

type A

56

peak present, compliance lower than normal, all other measures normal
represents abnormal stiffness as in otosclerosis, the beginning/ending stages of toots media, and significant TM scarring

type As

57

peak present and compliance is larger than the normal range, all other measures are normal
represetns a flaccid TM resulting from scar tissue or a possible disarticulation of the ossicular chair

type Ad

58

no peak present and therefore no compliance is recorded no true pressure is measured
reffered to as flat tympanogram

type b

59

ME pressure is outside of the negative normal range, compliance and ECV are WNLs
indicates negative middle ear pressure
posssible eustachian tube dysfunction
can be the result of the constant sniffling especially in children

type C

60

what does a type b tympanogram indicate

a fluid filled middle ear
blockage of ear canal
eardrum perforation

61

use a probe tip ___than the ear canal

larger

62

never test a ______ear

draining