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Flashcards in Test 3 Deck (231):
1

(Outer Ear)
The _____ ____ is at the end of the canal.

tympanic membrane

2

The tympanic membrane ____, causing the bones in the ____ ____ to vibrate against the _____ _____.

vibrates; middle ear; oval window

3

Coiled structure
Contains sensory cells and hair cells

Cochlea

4

The _____ ______ help with equilibrium and contain hair cells.

semicircular canals

5

When the sound waves vibrate against the oval window, what happens?

It creates pressure waves in the cochlear canals.

6

Pressure waves cause the _______ _______ to flex and activates _____ _____. The hair cells then release ______ to activate _____.

basilar membrane; hair cells; neurotransmitters; neurons

7

What kind of receptors are hair cells?

Mechanoreceptors

8

Hair cell, mechanoreceptor -

Ionotropic receptor

9

When sterocilia (microvili) bend _____ _____ open and close.

ion channels

10

What is the vestibular system made of?

Semicircular canals and the vestibules

11

Semicircular canals sense _______, or the turning of the head.

orientation

12

The vestibule is a chamber containing the _____ and ______.

utricle; saccule

13

The utricle and saccule are ______ organs.

otolith

14

Otoliths are crystals of _______ ________.

calcium carbonate

15

The sterocilia of hair cells are embedded in a _______ _______.

gelatinous membrane

16

The sterocilia detect _______ ________.

linear aceleration

17

The white part of the eye and clear cornea

Sclera

18

Controls the amount of light entering the eye (also the colored part of the eye)

Iris

19

The opening of the iris

Pupil

20

Focuses light (on the back of the eye, specifically the retina)

Lens

21

Has photoreceptors

Retina

22

The portion of the eye that contains no optic nerves or photoreceptors

Blind spot

23

The independent evolution of a similar feature from different ancestral traits
Hint: Human eyes and squid eyes

Convergent evolution

24

Allow us to see dim light and grays

Rods

25

_____ are more sensitive than_____.

Rods; cones

26

Allow us to see bright light and colors

Cones

27

Photopigments have two parts:

Protein (opsin - 4 types)
11-cis retinal

28

11-cis retinal is a derivitive of _______ and is in all _______.

vitamin A; photopigments

29

The term for photopigment in rods is ________.

rhodopsin

30

When light hits the retinal it causes _____ to change (or conform), and activates G-protein. This activation causes changes in ____ ____. It is a ________ receptor.

opsin; membrane potential; metabotropic

31

Light hits the photoreceptors, causing _____ ______ to change along with the amount of _______ that's released.

membrane potential; neurotransmitter

32

_____ _____ change their release rate of neurotransmitter.

Bipolar cells

33

______ _____ send information to the brain.

Ganglion cells

34

What are the three types of muscle?

Skeletal, cardiac, and smooth

35

Voluntary movement
Involuntary movement of breathing
Multinucleated
Striated

Skeletal

36

Heart contraction
Involuntary (______ control)
Branched
Intercalated discs
Striated

Cardiac; autonomic

37

Involuntary
Movement in gut, bladder, and blood vessels
Mo striations or sarcomeres

Smooth

38

Myocytes are also known as _____ ______ or _____ ______.

muscle fibers; muscle cells

39

Muscle cells are _______. They have many _____.

multinucleated; mitochondria

40

Myocytes contain ________, which are bundles of _______.

myofibrils; proteins

41

A unit of contraction
The units repeat

Sarcomere

42

Contractile proeins contain:

Actin
Myosin
Other proteins

43

Thick filaments

Myosin

44

Thin filaments

Actin

45

Titin contains _____ filaments.

myosin

46

Filaments slide past each other

The sliding filament theory

47

Where do motor neurons terminate on muscle cells?

Neuromuscular Junction
(Neuron, Muscle Cell, Where they meet)

48

One motor neuron and all the fibers it innervates

A motor unit

49

Muscle cells generate ____ _____. They're like ____ and get activated by ______ neurons. There is a change in ____ _____ here!!!

action potential; neurons; motor; membrane potential

50

Where does depolarization start?

Ligand gated channels

51

Where does depolarization spread?

To surrounding plasma membrane, away from neuromuscular junctions

52

When depolarization spreads, _____ channels open, which are ______ gated. This creates action potential that travels down _____ and causes ______ to release.

Na+; voltage; t-tubules; Ca 2+

53

The sarcoplasmic reticulum stores _______.

calcium

54

Multiple subunits
ATPase activity (to provide energy for contraction)

Myosin

55

Actin monomers
Myosin binding site

Actin filaments

56

Troponin
Tropomyosin

Regulatory proteins

57

Binds Ca 2+
Interacts with tropomyosin

Troponin

58

Blocks myosin binding sites

Tropomyosin

59

Minimum unit of contraction caused in a muscle cell by one action potential
Measured in tension or force

Twitch

60

The amount of tension an entire muscle produces depends on:
1) Number of _____ _____ activated, and
2) ______ of motor units firing

motor units; Frequency

61

Continuous force produced: no decrease in force (relaxation) between action potentials

Tetanus

62

Red fibers
Oxidative fibers
Aerobic
Many mitochondria
Myoglobin

Slow-twitch fibers

63

White fibers
Glycolytic
Anaerobic
Fewer mitochondria
No myoglobin

Fast-twitch fibers

64

Muscles can ____ and _____. For movement to occur they must ____ on something. This is where ____ muscles come into play.

contract; relax; pull; skeletal

65

Bones and cartilage are part of _____, and are _____ tissue.

endoskeletons; connective

66

Secrete extracellular matrix
Contains polysaccharides and proteins (collagen and elastin)
Are also strong and resiliant

Chondrocytes

67

Secrete calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate matrix

Osteoblasts

68

Osteoblast is surrounded by matrix
Stop secreting matrix
In the Haversian Canal
-Blood vessels/neurons go through the cell

Osteocytes

69

Break down/Absorb bone

Osteoclasts

70

Solid and hard bone

Compact bone

71

Porous
Lightweight
Strong
(Bone)

Spongy bone

72

Canal for nutrients and communication

Caniculi (canaliculus)

73

O2 comes from ____ production in the electron transport chain.

ATP

74

CO2 is a product of the ______ _______ _______.

citric acid cycle

75

How do gases enter and leave the body?

Diffusion

76

Diffusion is driven by _____ ______ _____. Individual pressure is exerted independently by a particular gas within a mixture of gases.

partial pressure differences

77

A ___ dissolved in ______ is the partial pressure that the gas would exert if the gas phase were in _____ with the liquid.

gas; liquid; equilibrium

78

How can gas move in respect to the partial pressure gradient?

Up and down

79

Which "medium" is better to breath: air or water? And why?

Air
Because:
-There's more O2 in the air
-O2 diffuses more rapidly in air than water
-It takes more energy to move water than air

80

There's more O2 in _____ water than _____ water.

cold; warm

81

O2 makes up how much of dry air?

21%

82

When _____ increases, pressure decreases. Meaning the total amount of gas per unit volume (or barometric pressure) ______.

altitude; decreases

83

Animals require ____ surfaces; This includes _____, gills, etc.

respiratory; lungs

84

Respiratory surfaces require a large _____ _____ and short ______ _______ for O2 to move in and out of cells.

surface area; diffusion difference

85

Sponges (Phylum Porifera) have many _____ and no cell is >1mm from sea water.

channels

86

The blood in gills is in close contact with _____ or _____.

water; air

87

The trachea leads to the _____, which then branches into _____. There's one ______ for each lung that branches into ______. From there they branch into _____, which is the site of gas exchange.

pharynx; bronchi; bronchi; bronchioles; alveoli

88

Alveoli have very thin walls with ____ _____.

blood vessels

89

When we inhale we _____ _____ _____ and the diaphragm contracts. When we exhale we ______ ______ _____. The lungs are suspended in the ______ cavity.

bring air in; push air out; thoracic

90

The diaphragm is a ______ muscle and is _____ (can be ______). It contracts during _____.

skeletal; involuntary; voluntary; inhalation (breathing)

91

The Blood consists of:

Plasma and red blood cells

92

Only a small amount of oxygen is dissolved here

Plasma

93

These carry most of the oxygen

Red blood cells

94

Red blood cells contain ______.

hemoglobin

95

Hemoglobin consists of ______ and contains ____ hemes.

tetrameric; four

96

These are iron-containing ring structures that reversibly bind O2.

Hemes

97

______ is another oxygen binding protein. It has one heme and carries ___ O2. It also creates a reserve of oxygen in ______.

Myoglobin; one; muscle

98

CO2 is a _____ _____ that does not _____ ___ ______. It is highly soluble and easily _____ through cell membranes. It's transported as ______ (HCO3-) and is in ____.

metabolic waste; bind to hemes; diffuse;bicaronate; plasma

99

How is breathing regulated?

It's controlled by the brain stem (autonomic nervous system)

100

A severed spinal cord results in ______ or _____ breathing.

stopped; irregular

101

-Has respiratory motor neurons
-Increases firing
--Causes inhalation
-Stops firing
--Causes exhalation

Medulla

102

Help regulate the breathing

Pons

103

Air breathers monitor CO2 and O2 via _____ that are on the surface of the ____.

chemoreceptors; medulla

104

CO2 and O2 are also monitored on ______ (aorta and carotid ") leaving the heart.

arteries

105

____ levels are picked up and send signals to the _____ to change breathing levels at extreme:
-High _____
-Low ____ volume
-Low ____ ______

O2; medulla
altitude; blood; blood pressure

106

Pump
-Heart
Fluid
-Blood
Tubes
-Blood vessels

What the circulatory system is composed of

107

Its function is to carry nutrients, gases, and metabolic wastes

The circulatory system

108

What do:
-Single-celled organisms
-Sponges
-Some invertebrates
not have?

Circulatory systems

109

Why don't some animals have circulatory systems?

-Low metabolic rates
-Short diffusion distances

110

Why can't larger animals get nutrients via diffusion?

Takes too long

111

-Liquid
-Where cells get nutrients
-Where cells dump waste

Extracellular fluid

112

-Fluid in the circulatory system (Plasma)
AND
-Fluid between cells (Interstitial fluid)
Are all:

Extracellular fluid

113

-No distinction between blood and extracellular fluid
-Few vessels that carry "blood" (hemolymph)
-"Blood" bathes cells directly ("blood" dumped in sinuses)
-Heart is present

Open circulatory system

114

-Blood remains in vessels
-Separate from interstitial fluid
-Hearts more muscular

Closed circulatory System

115

1) Move fluid more quickly
-Transport wastes and nutrients more rapidly
2) Vessels dilate and constrict
-Direct blood to (or away) from tissues
3) Specialized cells and large molecules help transport hormones, nutrients, and gases
-Kept in circulatory system, but drop off cargo

Advantages of a closed circulatory system

116

How many chambers does the heart have?

4

117

What are the atrioventricular valves?

Bicuspid and tricuspid

118

Separates the left atrium/ventricle

Bicuspid valve

119

Separates the right atrium/ventricle

Tricuspid valve

120

Separate arteries and ventricles

Semilunar valves

121

What do valves do?

Prevent blood from flowing backwards

122

How does blood flow?

-R. Ventricle
-Pulmonary Artery
-Lungs
-Pulmonary Vein
-L. Atrium
-Aorta
-Tissues
-(Superior/Inferior) Vena Cava
-R. Atrium

123

In what order does each side of the heart contract?

At the same time

124

Do the atria or ventricles contract first?

The atria

125

There is a period of _____ after ______.

relaxation; contraction

126

Systole refers to:

contraction

127

Diastole refers to:

relaxation

128

-Initiate action potential
-No input from the nervous system
-In sinatrial node
--In the right atria

Pacemaker cells

129

Via the ________ node, electrical signal passes to the ventricles, and to the Purkinje fibers.

atrioventricular

130

What are purkinje fibers?

Conducting fibers

131

What do purkinje fibers do?

Conduct electrical signal and separate ventricle walls

132

Where does the heartbeat originate?

The cardiac muscle

133

Heartbeat Process:
1) Starts in the ________ node (pacemaker cells)
2) Electrical impulse travels through the atria
3) Electrical impulse travels through the ________ node
4) Impulse travels through ________ _______
5) ________ contraction starts at apex

sinatrial; atrioventricular; purkinje fibers; Ventricle

134

Where does the exchange of waste, gas, and nutrients happen?

Capillaries

135

Because blood flows in _____ direction, veins have _____.

one; valves

136

Blood moves very ____ through the capillary bed which gives time for _______ to be reached.

slowly; equilibrium

137

Blood is a _____ ____ that has cells and _______.

connective tissue; plasma

138

A fluid matrix

Plasma

139

Hematocrit refers to the volume of ____ composed of cells. It includes:

blood
-Red blood cells
-White blood cells
-Platelets

140

Pieces of cell produced in bone marrow

Platelets

141

Where are red blood cells produced?

Bone marrow

142

-Contain hemoglobin
-Break down in the spleen

Red blood cells

143

What is the production of red blood cells controlled by?

Erythropoietin (EPD)

144

Hormone produced by the kidney in response to hypoxia (low amount of O2)

Erythropoietin (EPD)

145

Leukocytes (______ blood cells) are involved with ______ ______.

white; immune responses

146

-Destroy foreign cells and pathogens
-Produce antibodies
-Involved in allergic reactions (inflammation)

White blood cells

147

Large cells in bone marrow

Megakaryocytes

148

______ _____ come from megakaryocytes.

Cell fragments

149

Pieces of megakaryocytes break off to form ______.

platelets

150

Use solar energy or inorganic chemical energy (H2S) to synthesize all components

Autotrophs

151

Plants and some bacteria and some protists are _____.

autotrophs

152

Get nutrients from eating other organisms that provide energy

Heterotrophs

153

Feed on:
-Dead organic matter
-Plants
-Animals
-Plants and animals

-Detrivores
-Herbivores
-Carnivores
-Omnivores

154

How do most animals digest food?

Extracellularly

155

Sponges digest inside their cells. This is called ________ ______.

intracellular digestion

156

Sponges have _______ ______.

gastrovascular cavities

157

-Cnidarians and flatworms
-Blind-ended gut
-Function as digestive and circulatory systems

Gastrovascular cavities

158

Vertebrates and some invertebrates have _____ _____.

tubular guts

159

Tubular guts include the _____ and ______.

mouth; anus

160

-Break peptide bonds between amino acids
-Break apart peptides

Proteases and peptidases

161

Break down fat

Lipases

162

Break down nucleic acids (DNA/RNA)

Nucleases

163

Break down carbohydrates

Carbohydrase (amylase)

164

Where does chemical digestion begin?

In the mouth

165

What causes digestion to begin in the mouth?

Amylase and lipase

166

Where do amylase and lipase come from?

They're secreted by the salvitory glands

167

-Starts in the stomach
-Enzyme pepsin (activated by low pH)

Protein digestion

168

What is the inactive form of pepsin?

Pepsinogen

169

Pepsinogen is activated by low ____ ~ 2. The low ____ is due to HCl, which is a ______ acid.

pH; pH, gastric

170

Chemically and mechanically breaks down food

Stomach

171

Partially digested food

Chyme

172

How long does it take to empty our stomachs?

4 hours

173

Why is the pH of the small intestine more neutral?

Because of the bicarbonate that is present

174

Where is bile produced?

The liver

175

The _____ controls and stores bile.

gallbladder

176

The _____ produces digestive enzymes.

pancreas

177

Secretions come from the _____ and ______.

pancreas; liver

178

Most chemical digestion, along with the absorbtion of nutrients, occurs in the ____ _____.

small intestine

179

Digestion of carbs, fats, and proteins continues in the _____ _____.

small intestine

180

-High surface area
--Size of a tennis court

The small intestine

181

Vilus

Finger-like projections in the small intestine

182

Bile is made from _____.

cholesterol

183

-Stored in the gallbladder
-Released when fat enters the small inestine
-Is an emulsifier
--Prevents the aggregation of oil drops (Ex: salad dressing's oil and vinegar)

Bile

184

When a molecule has hydrophobic AND hydrophilic properties

Amphipathic

185

-Is amphipathic
-Hydrophobic end buries into fat
-Hydrophilic end sticks out and interacts with the water in the intestine
-Creates micelles (very small fat particles)

How bile emulsifies lipids

186

-Hydrolyze fats in micelles
-Produce monoglycerides and fatty acids

Lipases

187

-By diffusion
-Will be processed and eventually enter into lymph system
-Chylomicrons: cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids coated with protein (hydrophilic)
-NOT circulatory system

How fatty acids and monoglycerides enter the lymph system

188

A blind-ended tube that picks up fluid and transports them around the body

The lymph system

189

Fat travels through the _____ ______ and eventually gets dumped into the circulatory system

lymph system

190

-Proteases
-Nucleases
-Amylases
-Lipases
are all secreted into the ____ _____.

small intestine

191

Bicarbonate is a ____. I t is secreted by the _____ ___.

base; small intestine

192

Neutralizes acid in chyme

Bicarbonate

193

Where most nutrient absorbtion occurs

Small intestine

194

Absorbs ions and water

Large intestine

195

The large intestine has a ____ diameter, while the small intestine is ____.

larger; shorter

196

Why doesn't smooth muscle have sarcomeres?

The myosin and actin are organized differently

197

The stomach is an _____ organ that secretes _____.

endocrine; gastrin

198

As ______ increases, ____ decreases in blood sugar levels.

glucagon; insulin

199

What are the three homeostatic processes?

-Osmpotic
-Ionic
-Volume

200

Animals rely on the _______ _______ to maintain homeostasis.

excretory systems

201

Controls solute concentration

Osmotic regulation

202

Controls which ions are kept vs. gotten rid of

Ionic regulation

203

-Controls water
-(Ex:) Regulates blood volume

Volume regulation

204

Ectotherms _____ to solute concentration, while ________ regulate.

conform; endotherms

205

The process of water moving across membranes

Osmosis

206

Where does water move in regards to concentration?

To high concentration

207

How do excretory organs control water balance in an organism?

-Removing excess salts
-Conserving solutes
-Getting rid of (or conserving (when dehydrated)) H2O

208

Vertebrates maintain salt and water balance via ______ ______.

salt glands

209

-Bundles of secretory tubules with arterioles and veins
-NaCl

Salt glands

210

What is the salt gland called in sharks?

The rectal gland

211

-Nitrogenous wastes
--From protein and nucleic acid
-CO2 and water

Metabolic wastes

212

What is the main excretory organ?

Kidney

213

What do the nephrons do?

Produce urine

214

-Main excretory organ
-Nephrons
--Functional unit

Kidney

215

Carries urine

Ureter

216

Storage site of urine

Bladder

217

What surrounds the glomerulus?

Bowman's capsule

218

What is the glomerulus?

A ball of capillaries

219

The part of the tubule in the excretory system that dips into the medulla

Loop of Henle

220

The collecting duct _____ urine.

concentrates

221

What three processes are the nephrons involved in?

-Filtration
-Reabsorbtion
-Secretion

222

-Filters out water and solutes
-Proteins and blood cells remain in the blood
--Based on the size of the particle

Filtration

223

High blood pressure=

More urine

224

-Loop of Henle
-Conserves water, ions, and other molecules

Reabsorbtion

225

The active pumping of molecules into the tubule

Secretion

226

Kidneys also help regulate the ________ balance.

acid-base

227

Kidneys regulate the _____ _____ concentration (pH).

hydrogen ion

228

These are a major buffer in the blood

Bicarbonate ions (HCO3-)

229

A hormone that keeps you from peeing

ADH (antidiuretic hormone)

230

ADH is also called

Vasopressin

231

Hormones regulate kidney function:
1) If glomerular filtration rate is ____, fluid flowing through the nephron is ____ and more _____ is absorbed.
2) Makes the fluid in the distal tube more ____.
3) Dilute fluid stimulates the release of _____.
4) Renin causes a cascade of events that raise ____ _____, blood pressure, and glomerular filtration rate (decrease in Na+ reabsorbtion).

1) low; slow; NaCl
2) dilute
3) renin
4) blood volume