Flashcards in Test 3 Deck (231):
The _____ ____ is at the end of the canal.
The tympanic membrane ____, causing the bones in the ____ ____ to vibrate against the _____ _____.
vibrates; middle ear; oval window
Contains sensory cells and hair cells
The _____ ______ help with equilibrium and contain hair cells.
When the sound waves vibrate against the oval window, what happens?
It creates pressure waves in the cochlear canals.
Pressure waves cause the _______ _______ to flex and activates _____ _____. The hair cells then release ______ to activate _____.
basilar membrane; hair cells; neurotransmitters; neurons
What kind of receptors are hair cells?
Hair cell, mechanoreceptor -
When sterocilia (microvili) bend _____ _____ open and close.
What is the vestibular system made of?
Semicircular canals and the vestibules
Semicircular canals sense _______, or the turning of the head.
The vestibule is a chamber containing the _____ and ______.
The utricle and saccule are ______ organs.
Otoliths are crystals of _______ ________.
The sterocilia of hair cells are embedded in a _______ _______.
The sterocilia detect _______ ________.
The white part of the eye and clear cornea
Controls the amount of light entering the eye (also the colored part of the eye)
The opening of the iris
Focuses light (on the back of the eye, specifically the retina)
The portion of the eye that contains no optic nerves or photoreceptors
The independent evolution of a similar feature from different ancestral traits
Hint: Human eyes and squid eyes
Allow us to see dim light and grays
_____ are more sensitive than_____.
Allow us to see bright light and colors
Photopigments have two parts:
Protein (opsin - 4 types)
11-cis retinal is a derivitive of _______ and is in all _______.
vitamin A; photopigments
The term for photopigment in rods is ________.
When light hits the retinal it causes _____ to change (or conform), and activates G-protein. This activation causes changes in ____ ____. It is a ________ receptor.
opsin; membrane potential; metabotropic
Light hits the photoreceptors, causing _____ ______ to change along with the amount of _______ that's released.
membrane potential; neurotransmitter
_____ _____ change their release rate of neurotransmitter.
______ _____ send information to the brain.
What are the three types of muscle?
Skeletal, cardiac, and smooth
Involuntary movement of breathing
Involuntary (______ control)
Movement in gut, bladder, and blood vessels
Mo striations or sarcomeres
Myocytes are also known as _____ ______ or _____ ______.
muscle fibers; muscle cells
Muscle cells are _______. They have many _____.
Myocytes contain ________, which are bundles of _______.
A unit of contraction
The units repeat
Contractile proeins contain:
Titin contains _____ filaments.
Filaments slide past each other
The sliding filament theory
Where do motor neurons terminate on muscle cells?
(Neuron, Muscle Cell, Where they meet)
One motor neuron and all the fibers it innervates
A motor unit
Muscle cells generate ____ _____. They're like ____ and get activated by ______ neurons. There is a change in ____ _____ here!!!
action potential; neurons; motor; membrane potential
Where does depolarization start?
Ligand gated channels
Where does depolarization spread?
To surrounding plasma membrane, away from neuromuscular junctions
When depolarization spreads, _____ channels open, which are ______ gated. This creates action potential that travels down _____ and causes ______ to release.
Na+; voltage; t-tubules; Ca 2+
The sarcoplasmic reticulum stores _______.
ATPase activity (to provide energy for contraction)
Myosin binding site
Binds Ca 2+
Interacts with tropomyosin
Blocks myosin binding sites
Minimum unit of contraction caused in a muscle cell by one action potential
Measured in tension or force
The amount of tension an entire muscle produces depends on:
1) Number of _____ _____ activated, and
2) ______ of motor units firing
motor units; Frequency
Continuous force produced: no decrease in force (relaxation) between action potentials
Muscles can ____ and _____. For movement to occur they must ____ on something. This is where ____ muscles come into play.
contract; relax; pull; skeletal
Bones and cartilage are part of _____, and are _____ tissue.
Secrete extracellular matrix
Contains polysaccharides and proteins (collagen and elastin)
Are also strong and resiliant
Secrete calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate matrix
Osteoblast is surrounded by matrix
Stop secreting matrix
In the Haversian Canal
-Blood vessels/neurons go through the cell
Break down/Absorb bone
Solid and hard bone
Canal for nutrients and communication
O2 comes from ____ production in the electron transport chain.
CO2 is a product of the ______ _______ _______.
citric acid cycle
How do gases enter and leave the body?
Diffusion is driven by _____ ______ _____. Individual pressure is exerted independently by a particular gas within a mixture of gases.
partial pressure differences
A ___ dissolved in ______ is the partial pressure that the gas would exert if the gas phase were in _____ with the liquid.
gas; liquid; equilibrium
How can gas move in respect to the partial pressure gradient?
Up and down
Which "medium" is better to breath: air or water? And why?
-There's more O2 in the air
-O2 diffuses more rapidly in air than water
-It takes more energy to move water than air
There's more O2 in _____ water than _____ water.
O2 makes up how much of dry air?
When _____ increases, pressure decreases. Meaning the total amount of gas per unit volume (or barometric pressure) ______.
Animals require ____ surfaces; This includes _____, gills, etc.
Respiratory surfaces require a large _____ _____ and short ______ _______ for O2 to move in and out of cells.
surface area; diffusion difference
Sponges (Phylum Porifera) have many _____ and no cell is >1mm from sea water.
The blood in gills is in close contact with _____ or _____.
The trachea leads to the _____, which then branches into _____. There's one ______ for each lung that branches into ______. From there they branch into _____, which is the site of gas exchange.
pharynx; bronchi; bronchi; bronchioles; alveoli
Alveoli have very thin walls with ____ _____.
When we inhale we _____ _____ _____ and the diaphragm contracts. When we exhale we ______ ______ _____. The lungs are suspended in the ______ cavity.
bring air in; push air out; thoracic
The diaphragm is a ______ muscle and is _____ (can be ______). It contracts during _____.
skeletal; involuntary; voluntary; inhalation (breathing)
The Blood consists of:
Plasma and red blood cells
Only a small amount of oxygen is dissolved here
These carry most of the oxygen
Red blood cells
Red blood cells contain ______.
Hemoglobin consists of ______ and contains ____ hemes.
These are iron-containing ring structures that reversibly bind O2.
______ is another oxygen binding protein. It has one heme and carries ___ O2. It also creates a reserve of oxygen in ______.
Myoglobin; one; muscle
CO2 is a _____ _____ that does not _____ ___ ______. It is highly soluble and easily _____ through cell membranes. It's transported as ______ (HCO3-) and is in ____.
metabolic waste; bind to hemes; diffuse;bicaronate; plasma
How is breathing regulated?
It's controlled by the brain stem (autonomic nervous system)
A severed spinal cord results in ______ or _____ breathing.
-Has respiratory motor neurons
Help regulate the breathing
Air breathers monitor CO2 and O2 via _____ that are on the surface of the ____.
CO2 and O2 are also monitored on ______ (aorta and carotid ") leaving the heart.
____ levels are picked up and send signals to the _____ to change breathing levels at extreme:
-Low ____ volume
-Low ____ ______
altitude; blood; blood pressure
What the circulatory system is composed of
Its function is to carry nutrients, gases, and metabolic wastes
The circulatory system
Why don't some animals have circulatory systems?
-Low metabolic rates
-Short diffusion distances
Why can't larger animals get nutrients via diffusion?
Takes too long
-Where cells get nutrients
-Where cells dump waste
-Fluid in the circulatory system (Plasma)
-Fluid between cells (Interstitial fluid)
-No distinction between blood and extracellular fluid
-Few vessels that carry "blood" (hemolymph)
-"Blood" bathes cells directly ("blood" dumped in sinuses)
-Heart is present
Open circulatory system
-Blood remains in vessels
-Separate from interstitial fluid
-Hearts more muscular
Closed circulatory System
1) Move fluid more quickly
-Transport wastes and nutrients more rapidly
2) Vessels dilate and constrict
-Direct blood to (or away) from tissues
3) Specialized cells and large molecules help transport hormones, nutrients, and gases
-Kept in circulatory system, but drop off cargo
Advantages of a closed circulatory system
How many chambers does the heart have?
What are the atrioventricular valves?
Bicuspid and tricuspid
Separates the left atrium/ventricle
Separates the right atrium/ventricle
Separate arteries and ventricles
What do valves do?
Prevent blood from flowing backwards
How does blood flow?
-(Superior/Inferior) Vena Cava
In what order does each side of the heart contract?
At the same time
Do the atria or ventricles contract first?
There is a period of _____ after ______.
Systole refers to:
Diastole refers to:
-Initiate action potential
-No input from the nervous system
-In sinatrial node
--In the right atria
Via the ________ node, electrical signal passes to the ventricles, and to the Purkinje fibers.
What are purkinje fibers?
What do purkinje fibers do?
Conduct electrical signal and separate ventricle walls
Where does the heartbeat originate?
The cardiac muscle
1) Starts in the ________ node (pacemaker cells)
2) Electrical impulse travels through the atria
3) Electrical impulse travels through the ________ node
4) Impulse travels through ________ _______
5) ________ contraction starts at apex
sinatrial; atrioventricular; purkinje fibers; Ventricle
Where does the exchange of waste, gas, and nutrients happen?
Because blood flows in _____ direction, veins have _____.
Blood moves very ____ through the capillary bed which gives time for _______ to be reached.
Blood is a _____ ____ that has cells and _______.
connective tissue; plasma
A fluid matrix
Hematocrit refers to the volume of ____ composed of cells. It includes:
-Red blood cells
-White blood cells
Pieces of cell produced in bone marrow
Where are red blood cells produced?
-Break down in the spleen
Red blood cells
What is the production of red blood cells controlled by?
Hormone produced by the kidney in response to hypoxia (low amount of O2)
Leukocytes (______ blood cells) are involved with ______ ______.
white; immune responses
-Destroy foreign cells and pathogens
-Involved in allergic reactions (inflammation)
White blood cells
Large cells in bone marrow
______ _____ come from megakaryocytes.
Pieces of megakaryocytes break off to form ______.
Use solar energy or inorganic chemical energy (H2S) to synthesize all components
Plants and some bacteria and some protists are _____.
Get nutrients from eating other organisms that provide energy
-Dead organic matter
-Plants and animals
How do most animals digest food?
Sponges digest inside their cells. This is called ________ ______.
Sponges have _______ ______.
-Cnidarians and flatworms
-Function as digestive and circulatory systems
Vertebrates and some invertebrates have _____ _____.
Tubular guts include the _____ and ______.
-Break peptide bonds between amino acids
-Break apart peptides
Proteases and peptidases
Break down fat
Break down nucleic acids (DNA/RNA)
Break down carbohydrates
Where does chemical digestion begin?
In the mouth
What causes digestion to begin in the mouth?
Amylase and lipase
Where do amylase and lipase come from?
They're secreted by the salvitory glands
-Starts in the stomach
-Enzyme pepsin (activated by low pH)
What is the inactive form of pepsin?
Pepsinogen is activated by low ____ ~ 2. The low ____ is due to HCl, which is a ______ acid.
pH; pH, gastric
Chemically and mechanically breaks down food
Partially digested food
How long does it take to empty our stomachs?
Why is the pH of the small intestine more neutral?
Because of the bicarbonate that is present
Where is bile produced?
The _____ controls and stores bile.
The _____ produces digestive enzymes.
Secretions come from the _____ and ______.
Most chemical digestion, along with the absorbtion of nutrients, occurs in the ____ _____.
Digestion of carbs, fats, and proteins continues in the _____ _____.
-High surface area
--Size of a tennis court
The small intestine
Finger-like projections in the small intestine
Bile is made from _____.
-Stored in the gallbladder
-Released when fat enters the small inestine
-Is an emulsifier
--Prevents the aggregation of oil drops (Ex: salad dressing's oil and vinegar)
When a molecule has hydrophobic AND hydrophilic properties
-Hydrophobic end buries into fat
-Hydrophilic end sticks out and interacts with the water in the intestine
-Creates micelles (very small fat particles)
How bile emulsifies lipids
-Hydrolyze fats in micelles
-Produce monoglycerides and fatty acids
-Will be processed and eventually enter into lymph system
-Chylomicrons: cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids coated with protein (hydrophilic)
-NOT circulatory system
How fatty acids and monoglycerides enter the lymph system
A blind-ended tube that picks up fluid and transports them around the body
The lymph system
Fat travels through the _____ ______ and eventually gets dumped into the circulatory system
are all secreted into the ____ _____.
Bicarbonate is a ____. I t is secreted by the _____ ___.
base; small intestine
Neutralizes acid in chyme
Where most nutrient absorbtion occurs
Absorbs ions and water
The large intestine has a ____ diameter, while the small intestine is ____.
Why doesn't smooth muscle have sarcomeres?
The myosin and actin are organized differently
The stomach is an _____ organ that secretes _____.
As ______ increases, ____ decreases in blood sugar levels.
What are the three homeostatic processes?
Animals rely on the _______ _______ to maintain homeostasis.
Controls solute concentration
Controls which ions are kept vs. gotten rid of
-(Ex:) Regulates blood volume
Ectotherms _____ to solute concentration, while ________ regulate.
The process of water moving across membranes
Where does water move in regards to concentration?
To high concentration
How do excretory organs control water balance in an organism?
-Removing excess salts
-Getting rid of (or conserving (when dehydrated)) H2O
Vertebrates maintain salt and water balance via ______ ______.
-Bundles of secretory tubules with arterioles and veins
What is the salt gland called in sharks?
The rectal gland
--From protein and nucleic acid
-CO2 and water
What is the main excretory organ?
What do the nephrons do?
-Main excretory organ
Storage site of urine
What surrounds the glomerulus?
What is the glomerulus?
A ball of capillaries
The part of the tubule in the excretory system that dips into the medulla
Loop of Henle
The collecting duct _____ urine.
What three processes are the nephrons involved in?
-Filters out water and solutes
-Proteins and blood cells remain in the blood
--Based on the size of the particle
High blood pressure=
-Loop of Henle
-Conserves water, ions, and other molecules
The active pumping of molecules into the tubule
Kidneys also help regulate the ________ balance.
Kidneys regulate the _____ _____ concentration (pH).
These are a major buffer in the blood
Bicarbonate ions (HCO3-)
A hormone that keeps you from peeing
ADH (antidiuretic hormone)
ADH is also called