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rupture of the spongy urethra allows the accumulation of urine in the potential space between the deep/scarpa's fasica and the superficial/camper's fascia

Extravasation of Urine


-Yellow discoloration of the skin, scleral, and mucous membrane
-caused by bilirubin
-40% of babies are born with this due to a lag in the bile system turning on.



Can occur from vaginal infections spreading via the uterine tubules due to unsanitary conditions during birth or in immounocompromised women

Infection of the peritoneal cavity


Most commonly injured Abdominal organ
- vulnerable to blows in the left hypochondrium region
- causes sever hemorrhage and shock
- becomes more fragile in Mononucleosis, malaria, sickle cell anemia, and speticemia



Crater- like depression in the mucosa of the duodenum
-most commonly in the duodenal cap

Duodenal Ulcer


Low back pain is often caused by....

weak abdominal muscles


-abnormal protrusion of abdominal viscera (usually small intestine) through the inguinal region
-more common in males due to larger diameter of inguinal canal and large potential space (created by scrotum) for abdominal viscera to fill

Inguinal Hernia


area of potential weakness in anterior abdominal wall. direct inguinal hernias occur here.

inguinal triangle


-75% of inguinal hernias
-may be congenital (associated with patient processes vaginalis) or acquired (through forced opening of the passage)
-passes through deep inguinal ring, inguinal canal, and superficial inguinal ring before descending into scrotum or labia major
-passes lateral to inferior epigastric artery

Indirect inguinal Hernia


-25% of inguinal hernias
-occurs mostly in men over 40 years old
-always acquired (due to weakness in the conjoint tendon or transversalis fascia)
-punches directly through posterior wall of the inguinal canal, bypassing deep inguinal ring
-passes medial to inferior epigastric vessels, through the inguinal triangle
-causes great bulging of the anterior abdominal wall
-does not descend into scrotum

Direct Inguinal Hernia


-embryological out pouching of peritoneum which forms the inguinal canal and the tunica vaginalis of the scrotum
-normally obliterates, but if not, leaves a sizable passageway for intestines to pass into scrotum
-contributes to indirect inguinal hernia

Processus Vaginalis


True or false lower thoracic and upper lumbar subluxations may affect the functioning of the muscles of the anterior abdominal wall, increasing the risk of inguinal hernia



-passes through the femoral canal
-occurs inferior to the inguinal ligament
-more common in females

Femoral Hernia


-usually results from incomplete closure of the anterior abdominal wall after ligation of the umbilicus at birth
-can also occur due to defects in the linea alba

Umbilical Hernia



-vericose veins within the pampiform plexus



-accumulation of fluid within the cavity of the tunica vaginalis (deepest layer of the scrotum-in between parietal & visceral layers)



-testes are undescended at birth
-occurs in 3% of full term infants & 30% of premature infants
-most commonly found in the inguinal canal
-usually unilateral
-most descend in the first weeks/months after birth, if not infertility results (androgen secretion is unimpaired)
-undescended testes=increased risk of cancer


Infection of the peritoneal cavity

can occur from vaginal infection spreading via uterine tubules due to unsanitary conditions during parturition or in immunocompromised women



-accumulation of fluid within the peritoneal cavity (several liters possible)
-represents an imbalance between fluid production and absorption
-other causes: malnutrition, congestive heart failure, liver failure, kidney failure, or peritonitis



-inflammation of peritoneum
-usually results from infection
-often results in adhesions between parietal & visceral peritoneum
-phrenic nerve may refer pain to shoulder in peritonitis
-causes: trauma, inflammatory bowel disease, vaginal infections, or perforated ulcers


Congenital Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis

-A tumor like increase in the size of the pyloric sphincter, which reduces the size of the pyloric canal
-results in projectile vomiting
-requires surgical intervention early in infancy
-present at birth
-more common in males



-spasmodic contraction of the pyloric sphincter
-food doesn't pass easily from stomach to duodenum
-stomach becomes overly full, resulting in vomiting (possibly projectile)
-subluxations of T5-T9 may play a role


Gastric Ulcer

-crater-like depression in mucosa of the stomach
-barrier (alkaline mucus) between stomach acid and gastric mucosa is inadequate forming a gastric ulcer
-causes: excess acid secretion (often related to stress) or inadequate mucus barrier (usually due to presence of bacteria which erode the mucus barrier)
-subluxations of T5-T9 may play a role
-secretion of gastric acid is controlled by the vagus nerve


Duodenal Ulcer

-crater-like depression in mucosa of the duodenum
-most commonly located in the duodenal cap
-ulcers may perforate, allowing contents to escape into the peritoneal cavity, causing peritonitis
-can cause erosion of the gastroduodenal artery, which can result in severe hemorrhage
-liver, pancreas, and gall bladder are often damaged by a perforated duodenal ulcer (due to their close proximity)
-fluid travels from the sub hepatic recess to the right paracolic gutter to the right iliac fossa


True or False Gastirc and duodenal ulcers
-have been found to be associated with mid thoracic subluxations
-greater splanchnic nerve supplies sympathetic innervation to the stomach and duodenum above the entrance of the common bile duct



Heal (meckel's) diverticulum

-common malformation of the digestive tract
-finger-like pouch projecting from the distal ileum
-remnant of a portion of the embryonic vitelline duct
-contains all layers of the ileum & possibly pancreatic or gastric tissue (gastric tissue may secret acid)
-diverticulum may become inflamed, mimicking appendicitis


Crohn's disease

-inflammatory bowel disease which most commonly affects the distal ileum & adjacent colon (can affect any part of digestive tract)
-affects all layers of the intestine and results in thickening & ulceration of the affected segment
-results in diarrhea, pain, and malabosorpiton
-produces a "cobblestone" radiographic appearance
-cause: unknown


True or Flase the small Intestine is
-motility controlled, in part, by the autonomic nervous system (vagus, greater & lesser splanchnic nerves)
-subluxations of lower thoracics may affect motily, contributing to conditions such as crown's disease




-inflammation of the reniform appendix
-most common intra-abdominal inflammatory condition
-symptoms usually begin as umbilical pain, which then localizes to the right quadrant
-if left untreated, appendix may rupture leading to peritonitis
-cause: obstruction of the lumen due to lymphoid hyperplasia or fecal impaction



-herniations of the mucosa of the colon through the muscular layer without inflammation
-occurs most commonly in the sigmoid colon
-most common in individuals over 40