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Flashcards in Test 3 Deck (52):
1

Attribution Theory

Explaining someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition.

2

Dispositional Attribution

behavior that is recurring

3

Situational Attribution

a circumstance that attributes to a behavior

4

Fundamental Attribution Error

the tendency for an observer to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition when analyzing others behavior.

5

Attitudes

feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose our reactions to objects, people and events.

6

Peripheral route persuasion

being influenced by incidental cues, like celebrity endorsements

7

central route persuasion

people focus on arguments and respond with favorable thoughts. like auto ad focuses on great gas mileage.

8

Cognitive Dissonance Theory

we often bring our attitudes in line with our actions.

9

Culture

Enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next. Evolves over time.

10

Norm

And understood rule for accepted and expected behavior. Norms prescribe "proper" behavior.

11

Conformity

adjusting our behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.

12

Automatic Mimicry

we are natural mimics, unconsciously imitating others expressions, postures and voice tone.

13

Normative Social Influence

we conform to avoid rejection or to gain social approval

14

Informational Social Influences

Influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality

15

Individualism

cultural focus on an independent self

16

collectivism

honoring group standards

17

Social Facilitation

improved performance on simple or well-learned task in the presence of others

18

Social Loafing

tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their effort toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable

19

deindividuation

the loss of self awareness and self restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity

20

Group Polarization

enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group.

21

group think

the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives

22

social control

the power of the situation

23

personal control

the power of the individual

24

minority influence

the power of one-two individuals to sway majorities.

25

personality

an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling and acting.

26

psychodynamic theories

view personality with a focus on the unconscious and the importance of childhood experiences.

27

unconscious

according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings and memories. to which we are unaware.

28

free association

a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind.

29

ID

primal desires, basic nature

30

Ego

reason and self control

31

super ego

the quest for perfection

32

Freud's theory of personality development (5)

1) oral stage ( 0-18months) pleasure centers on the month
2) Anal Stage (18-36 months) Pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination
3) Phallic stage (age 3-6) Pleasure zone is the genitals
4) Latency (age 6-puberty) a phase of dormant sexual feelings
5) Genital (puberty onward) Maturation of sexual interests

33

oedipus complex

boys develop sexual desires for mother, hatred and jealousy for father (rival)

34

electra complex

girls develop sexual develop sexual desires for father hatred and jealousy for mother (rival)

35

Regression

retreating to a more infantile psychosexual stage where some psychic energy remains fixated

36

Reaction Formation

switch unacceptable impulses into their opposites

37

projection

disguising one's own threatening impulses by attributing them to others.

38

rationalization

offering self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening unconscious reasons for one's actions

39

displacement

shifting sexual of aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person.

40

denial

refusing to believe or even perceive painful realities.

41

genuineness

open with their own feelings

42

Acceptance

unconditional positive regard

43

Empathy

share and mirror others feelings and reflect their meanings

44

The Big Five personality factory (canoe)

1) Conscientiousness (disorganized vs organized)
2) Agreeableness (ruthless vs soft hearted)
3) Neuroticism (calm vs anxious)
4) Openness ( practical vs imaginative)
5) Extraversion (reserved vs sociable)

45

Psychological Disorder

a syndrome marked by a clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion, or behavior.

46

Medical Model

1800's study of the neurological damage caused by syphilis lead to research on causes of mental disorders and treatments to cure them. In this case it is believed that it can be cured in hospital

47

Biological influences

individual genes

48

psychological influences

stress, trauma

49

Social-cultural influences

roles, expectations

50

Classification attempts to (3)

1) Predict a disorder's future course
2) suggest appropriate treatment
3) Prompt research into a disorder's casue

51

negative of labeling (3)

1) subjective
2) Once we label a person, we view that person differently
3) Once labeled, a person begins to act as they have been labeled

52

Positive of labeling (3)

1) Service providers communicate using a common language
2) Promotes research
3) Receive service, assistance