Flashcards in Test 3 Deck (52):
Explaining someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition.
behavior that is recurring
a circumstance that attributes to a behavior
Fundamental Attribution Error
the tendency for an observer to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition when analyzing others behavior.
feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose our reactions to objects, people and events.
Peripheral route persuasion
being influenced by incidental cues, like celebrity endorsements
central route persuasion
people focus on arguments and respond with favorable thoughts. like auto ad focuses on great gas mileage.
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
we often bring our attitudes in line with our actions.
Enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next. Evolves over time.
And understood rule for accepted and expected behavior. Norms prescribe "proper" behavior.
adjusting our behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.
we are natural mimics, unconsciously imitating others expressions, postures and voice tone.
Normative Social Influence
we conform to avoid rejection or to gain social approval
Informational Social Influences
Influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality
cultural focus on an independent self
honoring group standards
improved performance on simple or well-learned task in the presence of others
tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their effort toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
the loss of self awareness and self restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group.
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
the power of the situation
the power of the individual
the power of one-two individuals to sway majorities.
an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling and acting.
view personality with a focus on the unconscious and the importance of childhood experiences.
according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings and memories. to which we are unaware.
a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind.
primal desires, basic nature
reason and self control
the quest for perfection
Freud's theory of personality development (5)
1) oral stage ( 0-18months) pleasure centers on the month
2) Anal Stage (18-36 months) Pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination
3) Phallic stage (age 3-6) Pleasure zone is the genitals
4) Latency (age 6-puberty) a phase of dormant sexual feelings
5) Genital (puberty onward) Maturation of sexual interests
boys develop sexual desires for mother, hatred and jealousy for father (rival)
girls develop sexual develop sexual desires for father hatred and jealousy for mother (rival)
retreating to a more infantile psychosexual stage where some psychic energy remains fixated
switch unacceptable impulses into their opposites
disguising one's own threatening impulses by attributing them to others.
offering self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening unconscious reasons for one's actions
shifting sexual of aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person.
refusing to believe or even perceive painful realities.
open with their own feelings
unconditional positive regard
share and mirror others feelings and reflect their meanings
The Big Five personality factory (canoe)
1) Conscientiousness (disorganized vs organized)
2) Agreeableness (ruthless vs soft hearted)
3) Neuroticism (calm vs anxious)
4) Openness ( practical vs imaginative)
5) Extraversion (reserved vs sociable)
a syndrome marked by a clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion, or behavior.
1800's study of the neurological damage caused by syphilis lead to research on causes of mental disorders and treatments to cure them. In this case it is believed that it can be cured in hospital
Classification attempts to (3)
1) Predict a disorder's future course
2) suggest appropriate treatment
3) Prompt research into a disorder's casue
negative of labeling (3)
2) Once we label a person, we view that person differently
3) Once labeled, a person begins to act as they have been labeled