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Flashcards in Test #3 Deck (87):

What is power?

The ability to control others, EVEN AGAINST THEIR WILL. It is legitimate and institutionalized


Is power legitimate?

yes. When people regard its use as morally correct or justified


is power institutionalised?

Yes. When norms and statuses of social organizations govern its use.


what is authority?

Legitimate, institutionalized power.


What are the 3 types of authority?



What is involved in the traditional authority?

The norm is tribal and feudal societies, rulers INHERIT authority through family or clan ties. Ex. the royal family


What is Legal-rational authority?

in modern societies, authority derives from RESPECT for the law. Pope (also charismatic but primarily this)


What is a Charismatic authority?

Based on a belief in the claims of extraordinary individuals that they are inspired by a god or some higher principle. With a supernatural or divine ability. ex. GOD, mother Theresa, Louis Reil


what is a political revolution?

the overthrow of political institutions by an opposition movement and its replacement by new institutions.


What is the state?

consists of the institutions responsible for formulating and carrying out a country's laws and public policies


what is a civil society?

the private sphere of social life


what are the 3 types of state?



What is involved in an authoritarian state?

sharply restrict citizen control of the state


what is involved in a totalitarian state?

Citizens lack almost any control of the state


What is involed in a democracy?

citizens exercise a high degree of control over the state


How to the citizens control the state?

by choosing representatives in regular, competitive elections


What theory does the functionalist account include?

The Pluralist theory


What is the pluralist theory?

Power is WIDELY DISPERSED--> no group enjoys disproportionate influence and decisions are usually reached through negotiation and compromise. HIGHLY IDEALIST


What theories are in the Conflict approach?

Marxist's instrumental
Marxist's structural
Power resource theory


What is the elite theory?

Small groups occupying the comand posts of the most influential institutions make important deviions that profoundly affect all memebrs of society.--> do so without much regard for elections or public opinion.


who are the elites?

the top 1%. The privileged people. Canada's political and other elites come from upper-class and upper-middle-class families


What is a ruling class?

a self-conscious and cohesive group of people, led bu big CORPORATE SHAREHOLDERS who act to shore up capitalism. MORE SPECIFIC than the elite group.


What do the Instrumentalist Marxists think about the Elite theory?

Elites form a ruling class dominated by big businesses where the state is an arm of the business elite.


How do marxists think that big businesses gain control of the state?

1. wealthy family members in high positions (more than ppl from an average family)
2. gov't relies on representatives of big business for advice
3. political parties rely on big businesses for financial support


What do Structural Marxists think about the elite theory?

the capitalist state acts as the arm of the big business because it is constrained to do so by the nature of the capitalist system itself


What is the power resource theory?

That the distribution of power among major classes partly accounts for the success and failures of different political parties. Organization is a source of power--> however can mobilize the ppl the best wins


What are the characteristics of the left and right side of government?

LEFT--less government intervention. More Modern values
RIGHT-- Government has a larger role in society and has more TRADITIONAL values


What are 4 things that distinguish political parties?

Class (major one)
Regional groups (geographical area)


What is the State-centered theory?

The state itself can structure political life to some degree independently of the way of power is distributed between classes and other groups at the given time. Suggests that the state may be organized in such a way as to bias politics as towards one social division or another


What are the 2 types of formal democracy? What is formal democracy?

Formal democracy involves regular, competitive elections. This is more general.
1-liberal democracy


What is post Materialism?

The theory that claims growing equality and prosperity in rich industrialized countries has resulted in a shift from a class based politics to value based politics


What are the conditions for countries when liberal democracies emerge and endure?

-considerable economic growth, industrialization and urbanization
- the speed of literacy
- a gradual decrease in economic inequality


powerful, pro-___________ foreign states and strong, prosperous middle and working classes are _______liberal democracy's best guarantees.

Democratic, liberal


The will of the ______ should be the focus/priority for the ________ theory.

citizens, pluralistic


What are the 5 theories of the capitalist democracy?

state centered


What are the 2 types of formal democracies?

Liberal and illiberal


What is a liberal democracy?

is a country that has regular, competitive elections and freedoms and constitutional protections that make political participation and competition meaningful and more desirable


What would an illiberal democracy look like?

eg. have a set election (with no opponents) and having control over media for biased news in favour of one politician.


How do liberal democracies emerge and endure?

the countries have:
- considerable economic growth, industrialization, and urbanization
- the spread of literacy
- a gradual decrease om economic inequality


What is postmaterialism?

the theory that claims growing equality and prosperity in rich, industrialized countries has resulted in a shift from class-based politics to value- based politics. (used to be concerned about material things [and basic necessities], but now concerned about environment and civil rights)


Since WWII, there have been ______ interstate wars and more civil wars, guerrilla wars, massacres, ________ attacks, and instances of ethnic cleansing and genocide.

fewer, terrorist


What is Al-Qaeda?

a typical creature of contemporary warfare. Sometimes when people don't have any other option for achieving political goals, they resort to terrorism


What is the Nuclear family?

A married mom and a dad with their biological children in the same residence


What is the traditional nuclear family?

in a nuclear family where the husband works outside the home for money and the wife works without pay in the home


What are family boundary ambiguities?

They refer to a state in which family members are uncertain about who is in or out of their family or who is performing tasks or roles within the family system


What is the vericalization of family structure?

refers to the increased number of living generations in a family, accompanied by fewer members within each generation


Functionalists view the erosion of the ________ family as an unmitigated ________ because for the society to survive, its members must ____________ economically.

nuclear, disaster, cooperate


What is your extended family?

expands the nuclear family vertically by adding another generation (one or more of spouses' parents) to the household.


which way does polygamy expand the nuclear family?



What is marriage?

socially approved
long term
reciprocal rights and obligations between spouses and between parents and children


What are foraging socitiers?

nomadic groups of 100 or fewer people


Does gender division of labout exist among foragers?

Yes, but it ISN'T associated with large differences in power and authority--men and women enjoy equal privileges


Has the population increased or decreased after the 1970s?



In the 20th century, Marriage rates went _____, divorce rates went _____. and fertility rates went_____.

down, up, down


What did the conflict theory suggest what happened in the nuclear family?

that the man controls the woman sexually and economically which ensured that a man's property would be transmitted only to his offspring. The solution to this was private property


What percentage of women are working with children under the age of 16?

more than 70%


What are 2 factors that shrink the gender gap for household chores?

1. smaller wage gap
2. attitude--if the couple want to have the work spkit up


What is marriage now, compared to historically?

marriage is about love now and is a social event, whereas before, it was arranged marriages to build power or prestige.


For a growing number of people, the transition from being single to being married is likely to involve _______ as an __________ step

cohabitation, intermediate


What are 3 differences between marriage and cohabitation?

1. Marriage is a contract that is accomplished throught ritual and legal authority
2. Marriage has clearly defined roles and expectations (ex. if you are the daughter in law or the son's gf)
3. Marriages are more enforceable than are cohabitating relationships (its more legal)


How much has cohabitation grew? (2x, 3x etc)



What is Living apart Together?

living when each person has their own seperate residence, but both people consider themselves to be in a commited intimate relationship (they purposley choose this)


How has the difinitio of family changed?

it is beginning to include same-sex couple households (less than 1% of all couple households in Canada)


What are interpersonal predictors of divorce?

-conflict and or violence
- one or both struggling with substance abuse or mental health problems
- infedility


what are the demographic factors that are predictors of divorce?

-women more likely to initiate divorce
- divorce more likely to happen in the beginning of marriage
- religious couples are less likely to divorce (especially when the 2 are the same religion)


What are some social factors that predict divorce?

- living in poverty
- having less education
-cohabitating with one's spouse before marriage
- having a baby before marriage or a previous marriage
- having grown up in a household without two continuously married parents


What are the consequences of divorce?

- deficits in the well-being of children
- creates stress
- requires a new adjustments


Who (the man or the woman) is usually more financially burdened after a divorce?

The woman because she usually takes the children and then also have to work


How many divorced parent remarry or cohabit?

up to one half


Many children living in step-parent households derive little ______ from the additional ____ and ___________ that a step-parent brings to the household.

benefit, income, supervision


Family ______ or lack thereof can both avert and create _______problems

policy, social


What are the criticisms of Family-Support Policies? (for non-marital purposes)

1. Policies encourage illegitimate birth, long-term dependence on welfare, and the breakup of two-parent families
2. Non-family child care is bad for children under the age of three
3. Expensive and have to be paid for by high taxes


What are the benefits of Family-Support policies?

1. Daycare can enhance a child's ability to make friends
2. Generous family support policies provide offsetting economic benefits
3. The daycare system is beneficial for women and for families, It is also beneficial for society as a whole (the women can have a break)


How does the structure of society and people's place in society influence?

-Content and intensity of people's religious beliefs
- form and frequency of people's religious practices


The scope of religious ________ has ________ in Canada and in other parts of the world.

authority, declined (religion governs fewer aspects of life than it once did


What is the collective conscience?

When people live together, the come to share common sentiments and values, which then form a collective conscience that is larger than the individual.


What are totems?

a designated object as symbolizing the sacred


What are rituals?

Invent certain PUBLIC practices to connect them to the sacred


What is the function of rituals and religion as a whole?

To reinforce social solidarity (and gives meaning to our lives)


What are the conflict and feminist theories criticisms about Durkheim's theory?

1. it overemphasizes religion's role in maintaining social cohesion
2. it ignores the fact that when religion does increase social cohesion, it often reinforces social inequality


What is Routinization of charisma>

Weber's term for the transformation of divine enlightenment into a permanent feature of everyday life. (typically makes religion less responsive to the needs of ordinary ppl) (has a special leader. a beurocratized society)


Religion has often supported class _________ inequality

inequality--> women can't be a pope--> patriarchial


What did Marx call religion?

the opium of the people--> it tranquilizes the underprivileged into accepting their lot in life--> Justice will be served later so you don't have to worry about them now


What is the definition of the church?

is any bureaucratic religious organization that has accommodated itself to mainstream society and culture


What is the seculariation thesis?

the religious institutions, actions, and consciousness are on the DECLINE worldwide and will one day disappear altogether (another form will take its place eg. hockey)


What is the revised secularization thesis?

an overall trend toward the diminishing importance of religion is unfolding in different ways throughout the world


What was the traditional theory? Has the traditional theory fallen short?

1. Traditional seclarization theory states that all societies undergo a process called differentiation where worldly institutions (schools) break off from the institution of religion over time. The divide was murky--> not very clear
2. Seperation between chrich and state the modern states are increasigly compelled to intervene in disputes over religion