Flashcards in Test 3 Deck (81):
the waveform traced by simple harmony motion, which can be made visible on a moving conveyor belt by a pendulum swinging at right angles above the moving belt.
For a wave or vibration, the maximum displacement on either side of the equilibrium (midpoint) position.
The distance between successive crests, troughs, or identical parts of a wave.
For a vibrating body or medium, the number of vibrations per unit time. For a wave, the number of crests that pass a particular point per unit time.
The SI unit of frequency. One hertz (symbol Hz) equals one vibration per sound.
The time in which a vibration is completed. The period f a wave equals the period of the source and is equal to 1/frequency.
A wave in which the medium vibrates perpendicularly (at right angles) to the direction in which the wave travels. Light waves and waves on stringed instruments are transverse.
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A wave in which the medium vibrates parallel to (along) the direction in which the wave travels. Sound waves are longitudinal.
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The speed with which waves pass a particular point:
Wave speed = frequency x wavelength
The phenomenon that occurs when two waves meet while traveling along the same medium.
the pattern formed b the superposition of different sets of waves that produces reinforcement in some laces and cancellation in others.
A stationary interference pattern formed in a medium when two sets of identical waves pass through the medium in opposite directions.
The shift in received frequency due to the motion of a vibrating source toward or away from receiver.
The V-shaped disturbance created by an object moving across a liquid surface at a speed greater than the wave speed.
The cone-shaped disturbance created by an object moving at supersonic speed through a fluid
the loud sound that results from the incidence of a shock wave.
The highness of lowness of a tone; related to wave frequency.
Describes a sound that has a frequency too low to be hear by the normal human ear.
Describes a sound that has a frequency too high to be heard by the normal human ear.
A condensed region of the medium though which a longitudinal wave travels.
A rarefied (of reduced pressure) region of the medium through which a longitudinal wave travels.
The persistence of sound, as in an echo, due to multiple reflections.
the bending of sound or any wave caused by a difference in wave speeds.
The setting up of vibrations in an object by a vibrating force.
The frequency at which an elastic object tends to vibrate when t is disturbed and the disturbing force is removed
The response of a body when a forcing frequency matches its natural frequency
A result of superposing different waves, often of the same wavelength. Constructive interference results from crest-to-crest reinforcement; destructive interference results from crest-to-trough cancellation
a series of alternative reinforcements and cancellations produced by the interference of two aves of slightly different frequency, heard as a throbbing effect in sound waves.
The "highness" or "lowness" of a tone, as on a musical scale, which is principally governed by frequency. A high-frequency vibrating source produces a sound of high pitch; a low-frequency vibrating source produces a sounds f high pitch; a low-frequency vibrating source produces a sound of low pitch.
The power per square meter carried by a sounds wave, often measured in decibels
The physiological sensation directly related to sound intensity or volume.
The characteristic sound of a musical instrument or voice, which is governed by the number and relative intensities of partial tones.
a single-frequency component sound wave of a complex tone. When the frequency of a partial tone is an integer multiple of the lowest frequency, it is referred to as a harmonic.
The lowest frequency of vibration, or first harmonic, in a musical tone.
a partial tone whose frequency is an integer multiple of the fundamental frequency. The second harmonic has twice the frequency of the fundamental, the third harmonic three times the frequency, and so on in sequence.
A mathematical method that disassembles any periodic waveform into a combination of simple sine waves.
a general term for electrical phenomena, much like gravity has to do with gravitational phenomena
The study of electric charge at rest (not in motion, as in electric currents).
Conservation of charge
Electric charge is neither created nor destroyed. the total charge before an interaction equals the total charge after.
the relationship among electrical forcer, charge, and distance:
F = k (q1q2 / d^2)
If the charges are alike in sign, the force is repulsive; if the charges are unlike, the force is attractive.
the SI unit of electrical charge. One coulomb (symbol C) is equal to the total charge of 6.25 x 10^18 electrons.
Any material that has free charged particles that easily flow through it when an electrical force action them.
A material that does not contain free charged particles and through which charge does not easily flow.
A material with properties that fall between those of a conductor and an insulator and whose resistance can be affected by adding impurities.
A material that is a perfect conductor with zero resistance to the flow of electric charge.
Charging by contact
the transfer of electric charges between objects by rubbing or simple touching.
Charging by induction
the redistribution of electric charges in and on objects caused by the electrical influence of a charged object close by but not in contact.
the term applied to an atom or molecule in which the charges are aligned so that one side has a slight excess of positive charge and the other side a slight excess of negative charge.
electrical force per unit of charge.
Electric field = F / q
Electric potential energy
the energy a charged object possesses by virtue of its location in an electric field.
the electric potential energy per unit of charge, measured in volts; often called voltage:
Voltage = electrical potential energy / charge
An electrical device--in its simples form, a pair of parallel conducting plates separated by a small distance--that stores electric charge and energy
The difference in electric potential between two points, measured in volts (synonymous with voltage difference or simply voltage).
the flow of electric charge that transports energy from one place to another, measured in amperes, where 1 A is the flow of 6.25 x 10^18 electrons per second, or 1 coulomb per second.
the property of material that resists electric current, measured in ohms.
the statute that the current in a circuit varies in direct proportion to the potential difference or voltage across the circuit and inversely with the circuit's resistance:
Current = voltage / resistance
Direct current (dc)
electrically charged particles flowing in one direction only.
Alternating current (ac)
Electrically charged particles that repeatedly reverse direction, vibrating about relatively fixed positions, in the US, the vibrational rate is commonly 60 Hz.
The rate of energy transfer, or the rate of doing work; the mound of energy per unit time, which can be computed as the product of current and voltage;
Power = current x voltage
An electric circuit in which electrical devices are connected along a single loop of wire such that the same current is in each device
An electric circuit in which electrical devices are connected in such a way that the same voltage acts across each one, and any single one completes the circuit independently of all the other.
Between magnets, it is the attraction of unlike magnetic poles for each other and the repulsion between like magnetic poles.
The region of magnetic influence around a magnetic pole or moving charged particle.
Clustered regions of aligned magnetic atoms. When these regions themselves are aligned with one another, the substance containing them is a magnet.
A magnet whose field is produced by an electric current. It is usually in the form of a wire coil with a piece of iron inside the coil.
High-speed particles that travel throughout the universe.
The induced voltage in a coil is proportional to the product of its numbers of loops, the cross-sectional area of each loop and the rate at which the magnetic field changes within those loops
An electromagnetic induction device that produces electric current by rotating a child within a stationary magnetic field. a generation converts mechanical energy to electric energy.
A device for transferring electric power from one coil of wire to another, by means of electromagnetic induction, for the purpose of transforming one value of voltage into another.
and energy-carrying wave emitted by a vibrating charge (often electrons) that is composed of oscillating electric and magnetic fields that regenerate one another.
The range of electromagnetic waves extending in frequency from radio waves to gamma rays.
the property of materials to pass light in straight lines without being scattered.
The property of materials not to allow passage of light (opposite of transparent)
A shaded region that appears where light rays are blocked by an object
The darker part of a shadow where all the light is blocked
A partial shadow that appears where some but not all of the light is blocked.
An event in which the Moon blocks light from the Sun and the Moon's shadow falls on part of Earth
An event in which the Moon passes into the shadow of Earth.
Additive Primary Colors
Red, blue, and green
Any two colors of equal brightness that, when added, produce the sensation of white light.