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Flashcards in Test 3 Deck (49):
1

Reinforcement

The process in which the occurrence of a behavior is followed by a consequence that results in an increase in the future probability of the behavior

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Consequence

The stimulus or event occurring immediately after a behavior

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Operant behavior

Behavior that acts on the environment to produce an immediate consequence and, in turn, is strengthened by that consequence.

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Reinforcer

A stimulus or event that increases the future probability of a behavior when it occurs contingent on the occurrence of the behavior

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Positive reinforcement

A type of reinforcement in which, contingent on the behavior, a stimulus or event is presented and the probability of the behavior increases in the future

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Negative reinforcement

A type of reinforcement in which the occurrence of the behavior is followed by the removal of a reinforcing stimulus. It results in decrease in the future probability of the behavior.

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Stimulus

An environmental event that can be detected by one of the senses

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Positive reinforcer

A stimulus that will increase the future probability of a behavior when the stimulus is delivered contingent on the occurrence of the behavior

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Aversive stimulus

A stimulus that will decrease the future probability of a behavior when the stimulus is delivered contingent on the occurrence of the behavior. Also called a punisher.

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Premack principle

One type of positive reinforcement in which the opportunity to engage in a high-probability behavior is made contingent on the occurrence of a low-probability behavior to increase the low-probability behavior

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Escape behavior

Behavior that results in the termination of an aversive stimulus. The termination of the aversive stimulus negatively reinforces the behavior.

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Unconditioned reinforcer

A stimulus that is naturally reinforcing because the capacity for our behavior to be strengthened by the stimulus has survival value. No prior conditioning is necessary for an unconditioned reinforcer to be a reinforcer. Examples include food, water, escape from extreme stimulation, and sexual contact

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Conditioned reinforcer

A previously neutral stimulus that has been paired a number of times with an established reinforcers and consequently functions as a reinforcer itself.

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Token

A conditioned reinforcer used in a token economy. The token is something that can be given to another person and accumulated by that person. The token is a conditioned reinforcer because it is given to the person after a desirable behavior and is exchanged for established reinforcers called backup reinforcers.

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Backup reinforcer

Reinforcers used in a token economy. A client receives tokens for desirable behaviors and exchanges a specified number of tokens for any of a variety of backup reinforcers

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Generalized conditioned reinforcer

A conditioned reinforcer that has been paired with a variety of other reinforcers. Money and praise generalized are conditioned reinforcers for many people.

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Contingency

A relationship between a response and a consequence in which the consequences is prevented if and only if the response occurs. When such a relationship exists, the consequence is said to be contingent on the response

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Motivating operation

An antecedent stimulus or event that alters the value of a reinforcer and alters the probability of the behavior that produces that reinforcer. Establishing operations and abolishing operations are two types of MOs.

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Establishing operation (EO)

One type of motivating operation. An event that increases the potency of a particular reinforcer at a particular time and evokes the behavior that produces that reinforcer. Deprivation is a type of establishing operation.

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Abolishing operation (AO)

One type of motivating operation. An event that decreases the potency of a particular reinforcer at a particular time and makes the behavior that produces that reinforcer less likely to occur. Satiation is a type of abolishing operation.

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Deprivation

A condition in which the person has gone with out a particular reinforcer for a period of time. Deprivation is a type of establishing operation; it makes the reinforcer the person has gone without more potent

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Satiation

Progressive (and ultimately total) loss of effectiveness of a reinforcer. Satiation occurs when you have recently consumed a large amount of a particular reinforcer or when you have had substantial exposure to a reinforcing stimulus

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Schedule of reinforcement

Specifies which responses will be followed by delivery of the reinforcer. In a continuous reinforcement schedule, every response is followed by the reinforcer. In an intermittent schedule, not every response is followed by the reinforcer

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Continuous reinforcement schedule (CRF schedule)

A schedule of reinforcement in which each instance of the behavior is followed by the reinforcer.

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Intermittent reinforcement schedule

A schedule of reinforcement in which not every instance of the behavior is followed by the delivery of the reinforcer. Includes fixed ratio, fixed interval, variable ratio, and variable interval schedules

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Acquisition

The development of a new behavior through reinforcement

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Fixed ratio (FR) schedule

A schedule of reinforcement in which a specific number of response must occur before the reinforcer is delivered. The number of response needed for reinforcement does not change.

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Variable ratio (VR) schedule

A schedule of reinforcement in which a specified number of responses is needed for the delivery of the reinforcer. The number of responses needed varies around an average number.

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Fixed interval (FI)

A schedule of reinforcement in which the reinforcer is delivered for the first response that occurs after an interval of time has elapsed. The interval is the same each time.

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Variable interval (VI) schedule

A schedule of reinforcement in which the first response that occurs after a specified time interval is reinforced. The time interval varies around an average value.

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Concurrent schedules of reinforcement

Schedules of reinforcement that exist at the same time for two or more different behaviors (which are called concurrent operants). Which particular behavior occurs at a particular time depends on the relative schedule of reinforcement, magnitude of reinforcement, delay of reinforcement, and response effort for the available behaviors

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Concurrent operants

Two or more of different behaviors or response options are concurrently available for the person. Each response option is associated with a specific reinforcement schedule.

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Response effort

The amount of force, exertion, or time involved in executing a response. With an increase in response effort for one behavior, the probability of that behavior decreases relative to the probability of a functionally equivalent alternative behavior

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Avoidance behavior

A behavior that prevents an aversive event. The behavior is negatively reinforced by the avoidance of the aversive event.

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Response

A response is one instance or occurrence of a particular behavior

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Shaping

The reinforcement of successive approximations to a target behavior. Shaping is used to establish a novel topography or dimension of a behavior

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Differential reinforcement

A procedure in which a specific desirable behavior is followed by a reinforcer but others behaviors are not. The result is an increase in the desirable behavior and extinction of the other behaviors.

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Successive approximations

In the process of shaping, each successive approximation is a behavior that more closely resembles the target behavior. The shaping process starts with reinforcement of the first approximation, a behavior currently exhibited by the person. After the first approximation is strengthened through reinforcement, it is extinguished. A closer approximation then occurs and is reinforced. This process continues until the person exhibits the target behavior.

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Backward chaining

A type of chaining procedure in which the last component of the chain is taught first. Once the last response in the chain occurs consistently when the last component is taught, and the last two components of the chain occur together. This training sequence proceeds until the client has learned all the components in the chain

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Behavioral chain

A complex behavior consisting of two or more component behaviors that occur together in a sequence. For each component behavior, there is a discriminative stimulus and response. A behavioral chain is sometimes called a stimulus-response chain

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Chaining procedures

Procedures used to teach a person to engage in a chain of behaviors. Includes backward chaining, forward chaining, total task presentation, written task analysis, picture prompts, and self-instructions.

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Forward chaining

A procedure for teaching a chain of behaviors. The first component of the chain is taught through prompting and fading, and once the first component has been learned, the second component is added. Once the first two components have been learned, the third component is added. This training sequence continues until all components of the chain are learned.

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Graduated guidance

A prompting strategy used with the total task presentation procedure in which you provide full hand-over-hand assistance as a prompt for the learner to complete the behavior. As the learner begins to engage in the behavior independently, you gradually fade your assistance but continue to shadow the learner’s movements so that you can provide assistance whenever it becomes necessary. Eventually, the shadowing is eliminated, and the person engages in the behavior independently.

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Picture prompts

A type of prompt in which the client is presented with a picture of a person engaging in the target behavior. The picture acts as a prompt for the client to engage in the correct behavior at the correct time. Often, a sequence of pictures is presented to prompt a client to engage in a chain of behavior

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Self-instruction

Self-statement that makes it more likely that a target behavior will occur in a specific situation

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Task analysis

Identification of the discriminative stimulus and response for each component of a behavior chain.

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Total task presentation

A procedure for teaching a chain of behavior in which the trainer physically prompts the learner through all steps in the chain. Eventually, the trainer fades the physical prompts and shadows the learner’s movements as he or she completes the chain of behaviors. Eventually, the learner completes the chain without any assistance from the trainer

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Video modeling

A type of chaining procedure in which the learner watches a video of part or all of the chain of behaviors as a prompt to engage in the chain of behaviors

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Written task analysis

A written list of each discriminative stimulus and response in a chain of behaviors. Sometimes a written task analysis (also known as textual prompts) is given to the learner to guide the learner’s behavior through the chain of behaviors