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Flashcards in Test 3 Deck (88):
1

what was the fashion of the directore period for women?

they wore next to nothing compared to other periods, very thin dresses with high waistline;
modest women still wore chemises and corsets overtop

2

what were the corsets of the director period like?

long, without a waistline, pushed breasts up and out

3

what is pictured in slide 1

drawers: worn by women made of cotton or linen, a basic part of women's fashion, new to England and America

4

what marked a lady as fashionable in the director period?

shawls made of cashmere
(imported from India against consent of Napoleon)

5

what happened to women's fashion between France and England from 1814-1826?
what did women in France and England wear?

the countries were cut off from each other and their fashion noticeably diverged
French women: white skirt, flared at hem with flounce
English women: looks 'romantic' with puffed sleeves and slashes

6

what happened to men's fashion between 1814-1826? What did they wear?

Frenchmen accepted English dress as law, due to superior skill of London tailors
snug fitting coat, no wrinkles, cut away in front reminiscent of a hunting coat
waistcoat and breeches two different colors
collars high at back of neck

7

what is broadcloth and what was it used for?

plain woven wool that can be stretched and fitted to the body
used in mens coats

8

what is a dandy?

a man unduly devoted to style, neatness and fashion in dress and appearance

9

describe waistcoats of the directore period

short and square cut, sometimes showing a few inches between them and pants, upper buttons left undone to display shirt frill

10

describe the types of men's pants in the directoire period and when they were worn

daytime: tight fitting breeches in riding boots
evening: silk stockings with pumps
sometimes- trousers, close fitting and ending at ankle

11

what is pictured in slide 2

spencer: short jacket worn by men and women

12

how did men wear their shirt collars in the directoire period

upright with the points projecting onto the cheek, kept in place by a cravat

13

cravat

large squares of muslin, lawn, or silk

14

when were hats worn by men in the directoire period

top hats all through the day
bicorne in the evening

15

what hairstyle is pictured in slide 3

a la victime: reference to the short haircuts given to victims of the french revolution

16

what hairstyle is pictured in slide 4

a la titus: short and disheveled, depicted on the statues of roman men

17

describe men's facial hair in the directoire period

military men wore mustaches
civilians were clean shaven, sometimes with side whiskers

18

a well dressed man was never seen without what?

a cane

19

what happened to dandy's clothes in 1819?

developed all kinds of extravagances including
top hat swelled out so crown was wider than brim (mad hatter), shirt collars came up to the eye, cravats grew tighter, shoulders padded and waist in corset

20

what is pictured in slide 5

pelisse: like a modern coat, generously full and followed empire silhouette

21

did women wear shawls in the 1820s?

yes, but they were less fashionable

22

what happened to women's waistlines in the 1820s?

the moved to the proper waist

23

who wore corsets in the 1820s?

all women, even small girls

24

describe women's fashion of the late 1820s (romantic period)

leg of mutton sleeves with puffed sheer sleeves overtop, skirts became shorter and wider, evening décolleté was straight edge across the bust
in the day they wore a ruff
reticules carried, wore muff, carried fans or parasols

25

describe women's hats in the romantic period

wide brimmed, made of straw, silk, satin, trimmed with ribbons and feathers

26

describe women's hair in romantic period

elaborately arranged curls over forehead with chignon at back

27

what happened to the shape of women's dresses in 1840

waists were low with lines of decoration on bodice exaggerating this, sleeves were tight with bulge of fabric over the lower arm
skirts were longer with same width
bodice in skirt fastened together with hook and eye

28

what is pictured in slide 6

jacket bodice: close fitting and buttoned down the front

29

what is pictured in slide 7

crinoline: small bustle made of horsehair

30

how were skirts adorned in the 1840s

with flounces, ruching, and other decoration

31

in the 1840s and 50s women's clothing tried to make them look _______, more like ________. How did they achieve this?

smaller, Queen Victoria
shoes without heels

32

what happened to the deccolete in the 1850s

off the shoulder

33

what is pictured in slide 8

encoeur: dip in the middle, horizontal across the top of corsage, typical of the period

34

what is pictured in slide 9

chatelaines- ornamental chains worn at the waist from which were suspended useful items such as scissors, thimbles, penknives

35

souffrante

rude health: it was fashionable to appear in poor health
no rouge, underlies paled

36

how were women kept in active in the 1850s

many petticoats to weigh women down and prevent activity

37

what happened to men's fashion in the 1850s

became more somber, with no exaggeration
cut away coats in the day and evening (black)

38

what is pictured in slide 10

frock coat: worn by men in the daytime
cut looser and and short than dresscoats
turned down flat collars

39

what hat did all men wear in 1850s

top hat

40

what kind of hat is the man wearing in slide 11

wide awake hat: low crowned informal hat

41

how were trousers worn in the 1850s

tight and strapped under the instep

42

differences between trousers and pantaloons in 1850s

pantaloons were tighter

43

what happened to women's skirts in the crinoline period

expanded, at first with lots of petticoats, then with a cage crinoline
waists were tight with fitted bodices

44

what is a crenoline

flexible steel hoops hung by tapes from the waist or seen into a petticoat

45

what did females wear under their skirts

women and little girls wore long linen pantaloons edged in lace, sometimes reaching the ankle
people that couldn't afford them wore pantalettes

46

pantaloons

tubes of white linen covered in lace ruffles, often reaching the ankle

47

pantalettes

tubes of white linen ending just above the knee

48

what happened to the crinoline by the end of the 1850s

it got even bigger and exaggerated so that two women couldn't sit on the same sofa together or enter a room at the same time

49

who was Mrs. Bloomer

went to England in 1851 to push her sensible costume: simplified bodice with skirt reaching the knee, baggy trousers with lace frill

50

what was the trouser complex

women trying to wear trousers caused Victorian men to see it as an outrage and women trying to usurp men's position

51

who helped to bring about haute couture and how

Empress Euginie of Spain wore the crinoline proudly

52

who was Worth

the first fashion designer, became the dictator of fashion in Paris. All rich ladies came to him to get their dresses made

53

what did women wear in the victorian age to cover themselves outside

shawls or mantalettes

54

what two inventions in the 1870s brought about a major change in fashion

the sewing machine and aniline (synthetic) dyes

55

who invented the sewing machine

Isaac Singer

56

how did sewing machines become popular and why weren't they originally?

they were too expensive
the civil war made them practical

57

what else came about in fashion because of the civil war

standardized sizes that allowed for ready made clothing

58

who was William Henry Perkin

the man who discovered mauveine and produced the first synthetic dye in 1856

59

when was the first bustle period

1870-1878

60

how did women wear their hair in the first bustle period and how did they achieve the look

mass of curls or braids at the back of the head that resembled their bustle
they used hair extensions "scalpettes" or "frizzuttes"

61

what were the two types of dress cuts in the first bustle period

all in one (princess cut) or separation between bodice and skirt

62

what is pictured in slide 12

jacket bodice: made with short or long basques forming an overskirt

63

what type of bodice is pictured in slide 13

cuirasse bodice: very tight and molded to the hips with a plastron of different material down the front

64

describe the corsets worn during the first bustle period and how did women get relief

long and very tight
they would wear a blouse instead of a corset at home

65

when was the second bustle period?

1878- 1883

66

how did dresses change in the second bustle period

the bunched up bustle has moved to the butt/low on the hips
all dresses had trains
asymmetry was popular
waist was incredibly tight in corset
skirt had an apron drape across the front to make the waist look even smaller

67

when was the third bustle period

1883-1890

68

how did dresses change in the third bustle period

bustle came back, sticks out horizontally from the back creating a large shelf

69

what is a langtry bustle

arrangement of metal bands on a pivot that could be raised when sitting down and sprang back up when standing

70

what did men wear during the bustle period

the frock coat for town wear or the morning coat

71

what's pictured in slide 14

frock coat

72

what's pictured in slide 15

morning coat

73

what did young men wear, especially at oxford and cambridge

short jacket or double breasted "reefer"

74

what is pictured in slide 16

norfolk jacket: used for shooting

75

what is pictured in slide 17

Homberg, worn with norfolk jacket

76

what did men wear in the evening during the bustle period

cut away coat with embellished silk black facings
tail coat still used for formal functions

77

what is pictured in slide 18

smoking jacket, worn after the ladies retired

78

what happened to men's fashion between 1880-1890

increase in informal wear
it was caddish to wear anything but a frock coat or morning coat in day to day life

79

what are lounge suits/sack suits

loose fitting jackets with no waistline

80

who was Mrs. Langtry

tennis player, Jersey Lily, who wore a knitted fabric when playing tennis
where we get jersey fabric from

81

what did women wear when playing sports

baggy knickerbockers "bloomers"

82

what was the rational dress movement

started in 1881, concerned with the unhealthiness of of the increasingly tight corsets and the unnecessary layers

83

who were the pre-raphaelites

women who followed the lines of fashion but wore dresses that were looser with full sleeves and no corsets, heelless shows and less formal hair

84

what was men's dress in the rational dress movement

knee breeches, velvet jackets, flowing tie, and wide awake hat

85

how did dresses change in 1890s

bustle and apron drape disappeared
dresses fit smoothly and snugly over the hip
skirts were long and bell shaped with a train

86

what material was very fashionable in the 1890s

lace

87

what happened to sleeves in the 1890s

they became huge, required large cushions to keep them standing

88

what was the new vogue for women at the end of the 19th century

tailored suite consisting of a jacket, skirt, and shirtwaist
women wore men's hats and stiff white collars